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Each has its own government and culture
Elevated part of a Polis
This is where all the rituals and worship was done. Important buildings located here.
the People of Greece
"Barbarians" came from this
This means anyone who does not belong to Helas
The urban part of a Polis
- Government: Oligarchy.
- Very Conservative, did not like change.
- War was their nature and jobs.
Periokoi had some rights(marriage, inheritence) yet only could not vote or participate in politics.
Adult male citizens of Sparta
+18 years of age
Women, children, elderly
Were Messinians at one time, but Sparta conquered them to provide for its people
Lived in "Lots"
A polis that was conquered by Sparta so Sparta could provide for its people.
Messinians were turned into Helots.
The test for a Spartan boy to become a man(Initiation Rite)
Training system for Sparta(school) for physical, moral, and civil education
This man performed the first reforms tried out for Athens
Turned the polis into a Democracy
Became a Democracy
Ruled by Council of 500
Little rights for Women besides bearing children.
Council of 500
Random drawing to decide who's in it.
Usually Idle-Rich were in it because before, Pay for Public Service, people could not afford to.
- Expanded Democracy
- Started Pay for Public Service
brought and end to the Persian Wars, yet he started the Peloponnesian Wars by using all the Polis's money to flourish Athens.
- Persians wanted to conquer Greece
- Middle East/Asia Minor
Darius was one of the Persian Emperors who took over many of the Greek city-states
Darius looses against Athens fleet at the Battle of Marathon.
Fought using battle tactic called Phalanx
Pushed by Pericles, A group of Greek city-states made this League in case Persia would attack again. They were forced to pay taxes to fund a large army/navy.
Started from Pericles using the Delian League's money to flourish Athens.
Delian League Splits and half stay with Athens while other half goes to Sparta
Sparta wins yet this has left Greece bankrupt and weak.
What starts the Muslim Calender
Muhammad's removal from the city of Mecca in 622 AD
Battle of Andrianople
Goths win the first major battle against Romans
Effects of Andrianople
- -Death of Valens
- -The 'Magister Militum'(highest rank in Roman military) always was a German after.
Wars fought between Rome and Carthage.
Rome wants to expand along Med. Sea.
Rome wins and burns Carthage.
Gracchi Brothers (Tiberius and Gaius)
- Brothers who tried to reform Rome
- Both get murdered in trying to do so
- Civil war breaks out
- Pompeii and Julius Caesar were part of this three way power.
- All of them were to team up and gain power in the Senate
Caesar ultimately defeats Pompeii after Pompeii betrayed him.
Caesar declares himself dictator
- Mark Antony and Octavian Augustus were part of the three way power
- They wanted to avenge Caesars death.
- Mark Antony took over Egypt and its surrounding areas while Octavian took over Rome and its surrounding areas.
Octavian starts war against Mark Antony after having and affair with Cleopatra.
Octavians self-proclaimed name
The 1st Greek city that mysteriously disappeared
Bread and Circus
Emperor's way of distracting the Plebians from the economic and social problems
Free Bread was given out while entertainment was shown(ex. Colliseum)
Edict of Milan
Christianity became legal
Passed by Constantine
He was praying one night before a battle and got a vision from God. God told him to put the sign 'Christos' on the shields.
After putting it on, he won an enormous victory and then converted to Christianity and wanted to thank God.
Time of peace in Roman Empire
Ended with Marcus Arailius's death and started with Octavian Augustus
A government that has four rulers and VP's.
Diocletian turned the Roman empire into this.
- the majority of people living in Arabia
- Nomadic people
Pericles Funeral Orations Main Parts
- Women shouldn't be mad about the wars but instead be happy that the men were dying for 'Democracy'.
- Sparta is a horrible Polis(Even though they have more rights for women and children than Athens).
- Some Gospels that were not allowed into the Bible.
- These Gospels and writings showed Jesus as a God instead of half human, half divine. They mainly talked about Jesus' sayings and words of wisdom
- They also showed that there was only Jesus, no Father or Holy Spirit
- An example is Gospel of Thomas.
Modern day France. Home of one of the groups of Barbarians that revolted in Roman Empire. They won the key battle in the decline of Rome.