ch 18-20

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ch 18-20
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2011-03-02 18:55:38
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  1. a unit of genetic unction found in bacteria ad phages, consisting of a promoter, an operator, and a coordinately regulated cluster of genes whose products function in a common pathway
    operon
  2. in bac DNA, a sequence of nucleotides near the start of an operon to which an active repressor can attach; the binding of the repressor prevents RNA pol from attaching to the promter and transcribing the genes of the operon
    operator
  3. a protein that inhibits gene transcription; in prok, repressors bind to the DNA in or near the promter; in euk, they may bind to control elements within enhancers, to activators or to other proteins in a way that blocks activators from binding to DNA
    repressor
  4. a gene that codes for a protein, such as a repressor, that controls the transcription of another gene or group of genes
    regulatory gene
  5. a small molecule that cooperates with a repressor protein to switch an operon off
    corepressor
  6. The trp operon is said to be a __ because its transcription is usually on but can be inhibited when a specific small molecule binds allosterically to a regulatory protien
    repressible operon
  7. An ___ is usually off but can be stimulated when a specificsmall molecule interacts with a regulatory protein
    inducible operon
  8. a specific smal molecule that binds to a bac repressor protein and changes the repressors shape so that it cannot bind to an operator, thus switching the operator on
    inducer
  9. Enzymes in lctose pathways are __ because their synthesis is induced by a chem signal
    inducible enzymes
  10. __ generally funciton in anabolic pathways; suspend production of an end product when it is already present in sufficient quantity
    repressible enzyme
  11. small organic moleucle that accumulates when glucose is scarce
    cAMP
  12. a protein that binds to DNA and stimulates gene transcription; in prok, it binds in or near the promoter; in euk, they bind to control elements in enhancers
    activator
  13. expression of dif sets of gtenes by cells with the same genome
    differential gene expression
  14. attachment of acetyl groups to certain amino acids of histone proteins
    histone acetylation
  15. hypothesis that proposes that speciic combos of modifications rather than the overall level of histone acetylation help determine the chromatin config, which in turn influences transcription
    histone code hypt
  16. process bvy which expression of either the mama or papa allele of particular genes at the start of development occurs
    genomic imprinting
  17. inheritance of traits transmitted by mechanisms not directly involving the nucleotide sequence of a genome
    epigenetic inheritance
  18. a segment of noncoding DNA that heps regulate trans of a genen by binding a transc factor; multiple are present in a euk gene's enhancer
    control element
  19. transcription factors that are essential for the transc of all protein coding genes
    general trans factors
  20. high levels of trans of part genes at the approp time and place depend on interaction of control element with another se tof proteins which can be thought of as __
    spec trans factors
  21. some control elements close to the promoter
    proximal control elements
  22. control elements far from the promoter
    distal contrl elements
  23. a segment of euk DNA containing multiple control elements, usually located far from teh gene whose transcription it regulates
    enhancers
  24. protein-mediated bending of dDNA is thought to bring the bound activators in contact wtih __, which in turn interact with proteins at the promoter
    mediator proteins
  25. phenomenon by which repressors recruit proteins that deacetylate histones leading to reduced transcription
    silencing
  26. process by which different mRNA molecules are produced by the same primary transcript depending on whihc RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns
    alter RNA splicing
  27. a giant protein complex that recognizes and destroys proteins tagged for elemination by the small protein ubiquitin
    proteasomes
  28. a small, single stranded RNA mol generated by cellular machinery from a long doble stranded RNA molecule; associates with one or more proteins in a complex that can degrade or prevent translation of an mRNA with a comp sequence; some cases it can block transcription by proomoting chromatin modification
    siRNA
  29. a technique used to silence the expression of selected genes; uses synthetic double stranded rna moelucels that match the sequence of a particular gene to trigger the breakdown of the gene's mRNA
    RNAi
  30. a small, single stranded RNA molecule,, generated from a hairpin structure on a precursor RNA transcribed from a part gene; associates with one or more proeins in a complex that can degrade or prevent translation of an mRNA with a complementary sequence
    miRNA
  31. structrural and functional divergence of cells as they become specialized during amulticellular organims development; depends on the control of gene expression
    cell differentiation
  32. a maternal substane such as a protein or RNA placed into an egg that influences the course of early developmenet by regulationg the expression of genes that affect the developmental fate of cells
    cytoplasmic determinant
  33. progressive restriction of developmental potential in which the possible fate of each cell becomes more limited as an embryo develops; at end of it, a cell is committed to its fate
    determination
  34. a gene that helps control the orientation polarity of the egg
    egg polarity gene
  35. any of the master regulatory genes that control placement and spatial organization of body parts in animals, plants and fungi by controlling the developmental fate of groups of cells
    homeotic gene
  36. process in which one group of embryonic cells influences developmenmt of another usually by causing changes in gene experession
    induction
  37. a gene that, when mutant in mother , results in a mutant phenotype in offspring regardless of offsprings genotype
    maternal effect gene
  38. a substance that provides positional information in form of a concentration gradiaent along an embryonic axis
    morphogen
  39. the development of body shape and organization
    morphogenesis
  40. gene found in viral or cellula genomes that is involved in triggeringmoleuclar events that can lead to cancer
    oncogene
  41. tumore suppressor gene that codes for a specific transcription factor that promotes the synthesis of cell cycle-inhibing proteins
    p53 gene
  42. a normal cellular gene that controls cell division and development
    protooncogene (can be converted to oncogene)
  43. a gene that codes for RAs, a G protein that relays a growth signal from a growth factor receptor on plasma memrane to a cascade of protein kinases, ultimately resulting in stimulation of the cell cycle
    ras protein
  44. gene whose protein product inhibits cell division, thereby preventing the uncontrolled cell growth that contributes to cancer
    tumor-suppressor gene
  45. moleacular cues that control pattern formation in an animal or plant embryonic structure by indicating a cell's loaction relative to the organisms body axes; these cues elicit a response by genes that regulate development
    positional information
  46. development of a multicellular organism's spatial organization, the arrangement of organs and tissues in their characteristic places in three dimensional space
    pattern formation
  47. a maternal effect gene that codes for a protein responsible for specifiying anterior end Drosophila
    bicoid
  48. genes whose protein products commit cells to becoming something, like skeletal muscle
    master regulatory genes
  49. organisms overall 3D arrangement
    body plan
  50. a mutation with a phenotype leading to death of an embryo or larva
    embryonic lethals
  51. hypthesis which proposes that gradients of substances called morphogens establish an embryo's axes and other features of its form
    morphogens
  52. a technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by incubating it with specific primers, a heat-resistent DNA pol, and nucleotides
    PCR (polymerase chain reaction)
  53. an endonuclease that recognizes and cuts DNA moleucles foreign to a bacterium; cuts at specific nucleotide sequences
    restriction enzyme
  54. DNA segment that results fromt eh cutting of DNA by a restriction enzyme
    restriction fragment
  55. a double stranded DNA moleucle made in vitro using mRNA as a template and the enzymes reverse transcriptase and DNA pol; it corresponds to the exons of a gene
    cDNA
  56. technique for separing nucleic acids or proteins on the basis of their size and electrical charge, both of whicha ffect their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel
    gel electrophoresis
  57. method to detgect and measure the expression of thousands of genes at one time; timy amounts of a large number of single-stranded DNA fragments representing different genes are fixed to a glass slide and tested for hybridization with samples of labeled cDNA
    DNA microarray assay
  58. process of manipulating genes and genomes
    genetic engineering
  59. process of manipulating organisms or their components for the purpose of making useful products
    biotechnology
  60. dna that has been artificially made, using DNA from diferent sources and often different species
    recom DNA
  61. process by which scientists can produce multiple copies of specific segments of DNA that they can then work with in the lab
    gene clonign
  62. used to cut strands of DNA at specific locations; derived from bacteria
    restriction enzymes

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