Anthropology

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Anthropology
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  1. Anthropology
    the study of humankind in all times and places
  2. holistic perspective
    a fundamental principle of anthropology, that the various parts of human culture and biology must be viewed in the broadest possible context in order to understand their interconnections and interdependence
  3. ethnocentrism
    the belief that the ways of one’s own culture are the only proper ones
  4. Culture-Bound
    theories about the world and reality based on the assumptions and values of one’s own culture
  5. Applied Anthropology
    the use of anthropology knowledge and methods to solve practical problems, often for a specific client
  6. Medical Anthropology
    a specialization in anthropology that brings theoretical and applied approaches from cultural and biological anthropology to the study of human health and disease
  7. Physical anthropology
    also known as biological anthropology. The systematic study of humans as biological organisms
  8. Molecular anthropology
    a branch of biological anthropology that uses genetic and biochemical techniques to test hypotheses about human evolution, adaptation, and variation
  9. paleoanthropology
    the study of the origins and predecessors of the present human species
  10. biocultural
    focusing on the interaction of biology and culture
  11. primatology
    the study of living and fossil primates
  12. forensic anthropology
    subfield of applied physical anthropology and specializes in the identification of human skeletal remains from legal purposes
  13. cultural anthropology
    also known as social or sociocultural anthropology. The study of customary patterns in human behaviors, thought, and feelings. It focuses on humans as culture-reproducing creatures.
  14. Culture
    a society’s shared and socially transmitted ideas, values and perceptions which are used to make sense of behavior
  15. ethnography
    a detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork
  16. field work
    the term anthropologist use for on-location research
  17. participant observation
    in ethnography, the technique or learning a people’s culture through social participation and wells as interviews and discussion with individuals members of the group over an extended period of time
  18. ethnology
    the study and analysis of different cultures from a comparative or historical point of view, utilizing enthographic accounts and developing anthropological theories that help explain why certain important differences or similarities among groups
  19. linguistic anthropology
    the study of human languages
  20. Discourse
    an extended communication on a particular subject
  21. archaeology
    the study of human cultures throughout the recovery and analysis or material remains and environmental data
  22. bioarchaeology
    the archaeological study of human remains, emphasizing the preservation of cultural and social processes in the skeleton
  23. cultural resource management
    a branch of archeology concerned with survey and/or excavation or archaeological and historical remains threatened by construction or development and policy surrounding protecting or cultural resources
  24. empirical
    based on observations of the world rather than on the intuition or faith
  25. hypothesis
    a tentative explanation of the relationships between certain phenomena
  26. theory
    in science, an explanation of natural phenomena, supported by a reliable body of date
  27. doctrine
    an assertion of opinion or belief formally handed down by an authority as true and indisputable
  28. artifact
    any object fashioned or altered by humans
  29. material cultural
    the durable aspect of culture such as tools, structures, and art
  30. fossil
    the preserved remains of plants and animals that lived in the past
  31. soil marks
    stains that show up on the surface of recently plowed fields that reveal an archaeological site
  32. middens
    a refuse or garbage disposal area in archaeological site
  33. grid system
    a system for recording date in the 3D from a archaeological excavation
  34. datum point
    the starting or reference , point for a grid system
  35. relative dating
    in archaeology and paleoanthropolgy , designating an event, object, or fossil as being older or younger that another
  36. absolute or chronometric dating
    in archaeology and paleoanthropology, dates for archaeological or fossil materials based on solar years, centuries, or other unties of absolute time
  37. key consultants
    members of the society bring studied who provided information that helps the researches understand the meaning of what they observe. Early anthologists referred to such individuals as informants
  38. informal interview
    a unstructured, open-ended conversation in everyday life
  39. formal interview
    a structured question-answer session, carefully notated as it occurs and based on prepared questions
  40. eliciting devices
    activated and objects used to draw out individuals and encourage then to recall and share information
  41. Human Relations Area Files (HRAF)
    a vast collection of cross-indexed ethnographic, biocultural, and archaeological data catalogued by cultural characteristics and geographic location. Archives in about 300 libraries
  42. Informal consent
    formal recorded agreements to participate in the research. Federally mandated for all researchers in the United States and Europe.
  43. globalization
    worldwide interconnectedness, evidence in global movement of natural resources, trade goods, human labor, finance capital, information, and infectious disease
  44. primates
    the group of mammals that includes lemurs, lories, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans
  45. mammals
    the class of vertebrate animals distinguished by bodies covered with fur, self-regulation temperatures, and in females milk-producing mammary glands
  46. species
    the smallest working unit in the system of classification. Among living organisms, species are populations or groups or populations capable or interbreeding and producing fertile viable offspring
  47. genus, genera (pl.)
    in the system of the plant and animal classification, a group of like species
  48. taxonomy
    the science of classification
  49. analogies
    in biology, structures possessed by different organisms that are superficially similar due to the similar functions; without sharing a common developmental pathway or structure
  50. homologies
    in biology, structures possessed by two different organisms that arise in similar fashion and pass through similar stages during embryonic development, through they may possess different functions
  51. natural selection
    the evolutionary process through which factors in the environment exert pressure, favoring some individuals over others to produce that next generation
  52. genes
    portions of DNA molecules that direct the synthesis of specific proteins
  53. law of segregation
    the Mendelian principle that variants of genes for a particular trait retain their separate identities through the generations
  54. law of independent assortment
    the mendalian principle that genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another
  55. chromosomes
    in the cell nucleus, the structure visible during cellular division containing long strands of DNA combines with protein
  56. DNA
    deoxyribonucleic acid. The genetic material consisting of a complex molecule whose base structure directs the synthesis or proteins
  57. chromatid
    one half of the “X” shaped of chromosomes visible once replication in complete. Sister chromatids are exact copies of each other
  58. alleles
    alternate forms of single gene
  59. genome
    the complete structure sequence of DNA for a species
  60. mitosis
    a kind of cell division that produces new cells having exactly the same number of chromosomes pairs, and hence copied of genes, as the parent cell
  61. meiosis
    a kind of cell division that produces the sex cells, each of which has half the number of chromosomes found in other cells of the organism
  62. homozygous
    refers to a chromosomes pair that bears identical alleles for a single gene
  63. heterozygous
    refers to chromosomes pair that bears different alleles for a single gene
  64. genotype
    the alleles possessed for a particular trait
  65. phenotype –
    the observable or testable appearance of an organism that may or may not reflect a particular genotype due to the variable expression of dominant and recessive alleles
  66. dominance
    the ability of one allele for a trait to mask the presence of another alleles
  67. recessive
    an allele for a trait whose expression is masked by the presence of the dominant allele
  68. hemoglobin
    the protein that carries oxygen in the red blood cells
  69. phenotypic inheritance
    two or more genes contribute to the phenotypic expression of a single characteristic
  70. population
    in biology, a group of similar individuals that can and do interbreed
  71. gene pool
    all the genetic variants possessed by members of a population
  72. evolution
    changes in allele frequencies in populations. Also known as microevolution
  73. mutation
    chance alteration of genetic material that produces new variation
  74. genetic drift
    chance fluctuations of allele frequencies in the gene pool of a population
  75. founder effects
    a particular form of genetic drift deriving from a small founding population not possessing all the alleles present in the original population
  76. gene flow
    the introduction of alleles from the gene pool of the one population into that of another
  77. adaptation
    a series of beneficial adjustment to the environment
  78. sickle-cell anemia
    a inherited form of anemia caused by a mutation in the hemoglobin protein that causes the red blood cells to assume a sickle shape
  79. clines
    gradual changes in the frequency of an allele or trait over space
  80. nocturnal
    active at night and at rest during the day
  81. arboreal
    living in the trees
  82. diurnal
    active during the day and at rest at night
  83. binocular vision
    vision with increased depth perception from two eyes set next to each other allowing their vision fields to overlap
  84. stereoscopic vision
    complete 3D vision from binocular vision and nerve connections that run from each eye to both sides of the brain allowing nerve cells to integrate the images derived from each eye
  85. opposable
    able to bring the thumb or big toe in contact with the tips of the other digits on the same hand or foot in order to grasp objects
  86. prosimians
    a subdivision within the primate order based on shared anatomical characteristics; included lemurs, tarsiers and lorises
  87. anthropoids
    a subdivision within the primate order based on shared anatomical characteristics that included New world monkeys, old world monkeys and apes (including humans)
  88. strepsirhines
    a subdivision within the primate order based on shared genetics characteristics; included lemurs and lorises
  89. haplorhines
    a subdivision within the primate order based on shared genetics characteristics; including tarsiers, New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes ( including humans)
  90. prehensile
    having the ability to grasp
  91. brachiation
    using the arms to move from branch to branch, with the body hanging suspended beneath the arms
  92. community
    a unit of primate social organizations composed of fifty or more individuals who inhabit a large geographical area together
  93. dominance hierarchies
    an observed ranking system in primate societies ordering individuals from high (alpha) to low standing corresponding to predictable behavioral interactions including domination
  94. grooming
    the ritual cleaning of another animal’s skin and fur to remove parasites and other matter
  95. ovulation
    moment when the egg released from the ovaries into the womb is receptive for fertilization
  96. tool
    an object used to facilitate some task or activity
  97. macroevolution
    evolution above species level
  98. speciation
    the process of forming new species
  99. cladogenesis
    speciation through a branching mechanism whereby an ancestral population gives rise to two or more descendant populations
  100. anagenesis
    a sustained directional shift in a population’s average characteristics
  101. punctuated equilibria
    a model of macroevolutionary change that suggest evolution occurs via long periods of stability or stasis punctuated by periods of rapid change
  102. continental drift
    according to the theory of place tectonics, the movement of the continents embedded in underlying plates on the earth’s surface in relation to one another over the history of life on earth
  103. bipedalism
    a special form of locomotion on two feet found in humans and their ancestors
  104. Australopithecus
    the genus including several species of early bipeds from southern and eastern Africa living between about 1.1 and 4.3 million years ago, one of whom was directly ancestral to humans
  105. robust australopithecines
    several species within the genus Australopithecus who lived from 1.1 to 2.5 million years ago in eastern and southern Africa; known for the rugged nature of their chewing apparatus (large back teeth, large chewing muscles, and bony ridge on their skull tops for the insertion of these large muscles)
  106. gracile australopithecines
    members of the genus Australopithecus possessing a more lightly nuilt chewing apparatus; likely had a diet that included more meat tan that of the robust australopithecines
  107. Oldowan
    the first stone tool industry beginning between 2.5 and 2.6 million years ago
  108. lower Paleolithic
    old stone age beginning with the earliest oldowan tools spanning from about 200,000 or 250,000 to 2.6 million years ago
  109. homo habilis
    “handy man” the first fossil members of the genus homo appearing 2.5 million years ago, with larger brains and smaller faces then australopithecines
  110. homo erectus
    “upright man” a species with the genus home first appearing just after 2 million years ago in Africa and ultimately spreading throughout the old world
  111. neandertals
    a distinct group within the genus homo inhabiting Europe and Southwest Asia from approximately 30,000-125,000 years ago
  112. mousterian
    the tool industry of the neandetals and their contemporaries or Europe, southwest Asia, and northern Africa from 40,000-125,000 years ago
  113. upper Paleolithic
    the last part (10,000 to 40,000 years ago) of the old stone age, featuring tool industries characterized by long slim blades and an explosion of creative symbolic forms
  114. multiregional hypothesis
    the hypothesis that modern humans originated through the process of simultaneous local transition from homo erectus to home sapiens throughout the inhabited world
  115. recent African origins hypothesis
    the hypothesis that all modern people are derived from one single population of archaic homo sapiens from Africa who migrates out of Africa after 100,000 years ago, replacing all other archaic forms due to their superior cultural capabilities. Also called the Eve or out of Africa hypothesis
  116. Neolithic
    the new stone age; prehistoric period beginning about 10,000 years ago in which peoples possessed stone-based technologies and depended on domesticated crops and/or animals
  117. Mesolithic
    the middle stone age or Europe, Asia, and Africa beginning about 12,000 years ago
  118. Archaic cultures
    term used to refer to Mesolithic cultures in the Americas
  119. microlith
    a small blade of flint or similar stone, several of which were hafted together in wooden handles to make tools; widespread in the Mesolithic
  120. Natufian culture
    a Mesolithic culture living in the lands that are now Israel, Lebanon, and western Syria, between about 10,200 and 12,500 years ago
  121. innovation
    any new idea, method, or device that gains widespread acceptance in society
  122. primary innovation
    the creation, invention, or discovery by chance of a completely new idea, method or device
  123. secondary innovation
    the deliberate application or modification of an existing idea, method, or device
  124. domestication
    the evolutionary process whereby humans modify; either intentionally or unintentionally. The genetic makeup of a population of plants or animals, sometimes to the extent that members of the population are unable to survive and/or reproduce without human assistance
  125. vegeculture
    the cultivation of domesticated root crops, such as yams and taro
  126. horticulture
    cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes
  127. diffusion
    the spread of certain ideas, customs, or practices from one culture to another
  128. Neolithic revolution
    domestication of plants and animals by people with stone-based technologies, beginning about 10,000 year ago and leading to racial transformations in cultural systems; sometimes referred to at the Neolithic transition
  129. Mesoamerica
    the region encompassing southern Mexico and northern Central America
  130. agriculture
    intensive crop cultivation, employing plows, fertilizers, and/or irrigation
  131. pastoralism
    breeding and managing migratory herds of domesticated grazing animals, such as goats, sheep, cattle, llamas, or camels
  132. civilization
    in anthropology a type of society marked by the presence of cities, social classes, and the state
  133. Bronze Age
    in the old world, the period marked by the production of tools and ornaments of bronze; began about 5,000 years ago in China and Southwest Asia about 500 years earlier in Southeast Asia emergence
  134. grave goods
    items such as utensils, figurines, and personal possessions, symbolically places in the gave from the deceased person’s use in the afterlife
  135. hydraulic theory
    the theory that explains civilization’s emergence as the result of the construction of elaborate irrigation systems, the functioning of which required full-time managers whose control blossomed into the first governing body and elite social class
  136. action theory
    the theory that self-serving by forceful leaders play a pole in civilizations
  137. race
    in biology, the taxonomic category of subspecies that is not applicable to humans because the division of humans into discrete types does not represent the true nature of human biological variation. In some societies race is an important social category
  138. racism
    a doctrine of superiority by which one group justifies the dehumanization of others based on their distinctive physical characteristics
  139. lactase
    an enzyme in the small intestine that enables humans to assimilate lactose
  140. lactose
    a sugar that is the primary constituent of fresh milk
  141. thrifty genotype
    human genotype that permits efficient storage of fat to draw in on times of food shortage and conservation of glucose and nitrogen

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