Drug Mech: Exam 2 Review

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Drug Mech: Exam 2 Review
2011-03-01 20:06:06
Drug Mech Exam

Drug Mech: Spring 2011 Exam 2 Review
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  1. Classification of Antibiotics: Inhibitors of Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis
    • Beta Lactams
    • Vancomycin
    • Cycloserine
    • Bacitracin
    • Fosfomycin
    • Dalbavancin
    • Telavancin
  2. Classification of Antibiotics: Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis
    • Tetracyclines
    • Aminoglycosides
    • Macrolides
    • Lincosamides
    • Chloramphenicol
    • Streptogramins
    • Linezolid
    • Pleuromutilins (Retapamulin)
  3. Classification of Antibiotics: Inhibitors of Nucleic Acid Synthesis
    • Quinolones
    • Rifamycins
  4. Classification of Antibiotics: Disruptors of Cell Membrane Permeability
    • Polypeptides
    • Cyclic Lipopeptides
  5. Classification of Antibiotics: Antifolates
    • Sulfonamides
    • Trimethoprim
  6. Classification of Antibiotics: Antituberculosis Agents
    nothing listed
  7. Cross Resistance can be caused by what two mechanisms?
    • overlapping targets
    • active efflux
  8. What is Co-Resistance?
    • Multi-drug resistance
    • when several mechanisms of resistance develop against the entire class of drugs
  9. What is the difference between a gram-positive bacterial cell wall and the gram-negative bacterial cell wall?
    • Gram-Positive Bacterial Cell Wall:
    • Less developed biosynthetically.
    • Simple cell wall.
    • High internal osmolality.
    • Very thick peptidoglycan layer.
    • Antibiotic agents mostly active in gram positive!

    • Gram-Negative Bacterial Cell Wall:
    • Highly developed biosynthetically.
    • Highly adaptive (more sophisticated cell wall).
    • Complex; penetration of antibiotics is often restricted.
    • Low internal osmolality.
    • Very thin peptidoglycan layer.
  10. What are other names for the peptidoglycan layer?
    • murein
    • mucopeptide
  11. What alternating aminosugars make up the peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall?
    • N-acetylglucosamine (NAG)
    • N-acetylmuramicacid (NAM)
  12. Antibiotics inhibit different steps in the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall. What are the synthesis steps for peptidoglycan?
    • 1) Peptidoglycan Monomers are formed: NAG & NAM
    • 2) Alanine Racemase step: A pentapeptide is attached to NAM, and the last two amino acids on that pentapeptide, which are L-alanines, are converted to D-alanines via Alanine Racemase enzyme.
    • 3) Bactoprenols Transport & Insert: Bactoprenols insert the monomers into the growing peptidoglycan wall.
    • 4) Transglcosylation: Glycosidic bonds are formed between NAG and NAM in the peptidoglycan layer via the transglycosidase enzyme.
    • 5) Transpeptidation or Cross-Linking: Peptide bonds are formed between the layers of peptidoglycan via transpeptidase enzymes. This cross-linking makes the peptidoglycan wall strong.
  13. What steps of peptidoglycan synthesis do antibiotics block?
    • 1) Inhibit the synthesis of peptidoglycan monomers: Fosfomycin
    • 2) Inhibit the Alanine Rasinase Step: Cycloserine
    • 3) Inhibit the Bactoprenols from Transportation & Insertion: Bacitracin
    • 4) Inhibit the Transglycosylation Step:Vancomycin, Dalbavancin, Telavancin
    • 5) Inhibit the Transpeptidation or Cross-Linking Step: b-Lactams, Vancomycin, Dalbavancin, Telavancin
  14. What are the two bifunctional penicillin binding protein (PBP) domains called?
    • glycosyltransferase (membrane bound): transglycosylation step
    • transpeptidase (extracellular): transpeptidation or cross-linking step
  15. Beta Lactams
    • Penicillins
    • Cephalosporins
    • Monobactams
    • Carbapenems