Antibiotics inhibit different steps in the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall. What are the synthesis steps for peptidoglycan?
- 1) Peptidoglycan Monomers are formed: NAG & NAM
- 2) Alanine Racemase step: A pentapeptide is attached to NAM, and the last two amino acids on that pentapeptide, which are L-alanines, are converted to D-alanines via Alanine Racemase enzyme.
- 3) Bactoprenols Transport & Insert: Bactoprenols insert the monomers into the growing peptidoglycan wall.
- 4) Transglcosylation: Glycosidic bonds are formed between NAG and NAM in the peptidoglycan layer via the transglycosidase enzyme.
- 5) Transpeptidation or Cross-Linking: Peptide bonds are formed between the layers of peptidoglycan via transpeptidase enzymes. This cross-linking makes the peptidoglycan wall strong.