Phil Exam 2

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upcpk
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Phil Exam 2
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2011-03-01 21:06:42
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Philosophy Religion
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lesson 6 - 10
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  1. Metaphysics, as a branch of philosophy, is
    A. the theory or study of knowledge
    B. the study of good and bad reasoning
    C. the study of the ultimate or basic nature of reality
    D. another term for theoretical physics
    • A. the theory or study of knowledge
    • B. the study of good and bad reasoning
    • C. the study of the ultimate or basic nature of reality
    • D. another term for theoretical physics
  2. The notion that a corporation is like a living organism that thinks, acts, and directs the activities of its members is an example of
    A. dualism
    B. Metaphysical collectivism
    C. monism
    D. pluralism
    • A. dualism
    • B. Metaphysical collectivism
    • C. monism
    • D. pluralism
  3. Pragmatist reject the significance of the debate between metaphysical materialism and idealism because
    A. it has no experiential consequences
    B. it arises out of misuse of language
    C. it is focused on abstractions that have little to do with reality as it is revealed to human consciousness
    D. there are many realities
    • A. it has no experiential consequences
    • B. it arises out of misuse of language
    • C. it is focused on abstractions that have little to do with reality as it is revealed to human consciousness
    • D. there are many realities
  4. According to some critics of materialism, the fatal flaw of materialism is that reality seems to contain
    A. some unpredictable sub-atomic particles
    B. only matter in motion
    C. onjects that may not be casually related
    D. a mental residue beyond physics
    • A. some unpredictable sub-atomic particles
    • B. only matter in motion
    • C. onjects that may not be casually related
    • D. a mental residue beyond physics
  5. One of the earliest materialist views was expressed in the
    A. 20th century by Albert Einstein
    B. 19th century by J.J. Thompson
    C. 17th century by Thomas Hobbes
    D. 5th century BCE by Democritus
    • A. 20th century by Albert Einstein
    • B. 19th century by J.J. Thompson
    • C. 17th century by Thomas Hobbes
    • D. 5th century BCE by Democritus
  6. According to Thomas Hobbes
    A. only matter in motion is real
    B. only minds and their ideas are real
    C. only minds and the bodies they inhabit are real
    D. nothing is real
    • A. only matter in motion is real
    • B. only minds and their ideas are real
    • C. only minds and the bodies they inhabit are real
    • D. nothing is real
  7. For George Berkeley, to exist- that is, to be - is to
    A. endure as a physical object
    B. be an event involving physical objects
    C. be described by a language
    D. be perceived
    • A. endure as a physical object
    • B. be an event involving physical objects
    • C. be described by a language
    • D. be perceived
  8. In the history of philosophy, an outstanding defender of metaphysical idealism was
    A. A.J. Ayer
    B. George Berkeley
    C. Rene Descartes
    D. Thomas Hobbes
    • A. A.J. Ayer
    • B. George Berkeley
    • C. Rene Descartes
    • D. Thomas Hobbes
  9. According to a pragmatist like William James, metaphysical disputes can be resolved by
    A. scrupulously analyzing the nature of an idea
    B. leaving all such issues to scientific investigation
    C. studying closely the sacred literature of many cultures
    D. tracing each view's practical consequences to see if they make any real difference
    • A. scrupulously analyzing the nature of an idea
    • B. leaving all such issues to scientific investigation
    • C. studying closely the sacred literature of many cultures
    • D. tracing each view's practical consequences to see if they make any real difference
  10. Much of the debate between realists and anti-realists about the nature of reality turn on the claim that
    A. reality is external and independent of our consiousness of it
    B. language is shared by non-human animals
    C. metaphysical pluralism must be true
    D. language is only a label for our thoughts
    • A. reality is external and independent of our consiousness of it
    • B. language is shared by non-human animals
    • C. metaphysical pluralism must be true
    • D. language is only a label for our thoughts
  11. T or F:
    As Robert Nozick has said, to say something is real is to say it has "value, meaning, importance, and weight"
    True
  12. T or F:
    Idealism is the view that matter is ideally the ultimate constituent of reality
    false
  13. T or F:
    According to subjective idealism, the world consists of my own mind and things that are dependent on it
    True
  14. T or F:
    In his work on pragmatism, William James agrees that the dispute between materialism and idealism has important practical consequences.
    False
  15. T or F:
    Logical positivists like A.J. Ayer view metaphysical statements as meaningless because they are neither tautologies nor statements of fact can be verified by observation.
    True
  16. In the free will debate, liberatarians claim
    A. genuine free will is an illusion
    B. having a free will is to be without external and/or internal obstacles
    C. we are free to choose our actions
    D. government should be at an absolute minimum
    • A. genuine free will is an illusion
    • B. having a free will is to be without external and/or internal obstacles
    • C. we are free to choose our actions
    • D. government should be at an absolute minimum
  17. In the free will debate, compatibilists claim
    A. genuine free will is an illusion
    B. having a free will is to be without external and/or internal obstacles
    C. we are free to choose our actions
    D. government should be at an absolute minimum
    • A. genuine free will is an illusion
    • B. having a free will is to be without external and/or internal obstacles
    • C. we are free to choose our actions
    • D. government should be at an absolute minimum
  18. In the free will debate, determinists claim
    A. genuine free will is an illusion
    B. having a free will is to be without external and/or internal obstacles
    C. we are free to choose our actions
    D. government should be at an absolute minimum
    • A. genuine free will is an illusion
    • B. having a free will is to be without external and/or internal obstacles
    • C. we are free to choose our actions
    • D. government should be at an absolute minimum
  19. The scientific point of view rests upon the assumption that
    A. all events and things in nature are caused
    B. creatures other than humans have a free will
    C. only God has a free will
    D. only humans escape the laws of cause and effect
    • A. all events and things in nature are caused
    • B. creatures other than humans have a free will
    • C. only God has a free will
    • D. only humans escape the laws of cause and effect
  20. In western civilization, the classic or traditional view of human beings is that they are
    A. matter in motion like everything else
    B. slaves to their passions
    C. creatures living in both the noumenal phenomenal realms
    D. reasoning, free moral agents
    • A. matter in motion like everything else
    • B. slaves to their passions
    • C. creatures living in both the noumenal phenomenal realms
    • D. reasoning, free moral agents
  21. To hold someone responsible for his or her action seems to require that
    A. the person could have chosen another course of action
    B. the person's act was simply reflex behavior
    C. the person had no idea why he or she did the act
    D. all events are casually determined
    • A. the person could have chosen another course of action
    • B. the person's act was simply reflex behavior
    • C. the person had no idea why he or she did the act
    • D. all events are casually determined
  22. Existentialists tend to be
    A. determinists
    B. compatibilists
    C. libertarians
    D. Freudians
    • A. determinists
    • B. compatibilists
    • C. libertarians
    • D. Freudians
  23. Traditional compatibilists failed to account for
    A. cases of external obstacles to freedom or liberty
    B. cases of internal obstacles to freedom or liberty
    C. the role of science in providing natural explanations
    D. the role of value in choice
    • A. cases of external obstacles to freedom or liberty
    • B. cases of internal obstacles to freedom or liberty
    • C. the role of science in providing natural explanations
    • D. the role of value in choice
  24. Determined or Free will?
    being a member of a particular race
    determined
  25. Determined or Free will?
    being a drug addict
    Free will
  26. Determined or Free will?
    being a member of a particular religious group
    free will
  27. Determined or Free will?
    brushing your teeth in the morning
    free will
  28. Determined or Free will?
    wanting a particular candy bar, car, piece of clothing
    free will
  29. Determined or Free will?
    having a particular sexual preferance
    determined
  30. T or F:
    The determinist view of reality claims that determinism does not rule personal responsibility
    False
  31. T or F:
    Sigmund Freud wrote that "the unconscious is the master of every fate and the captain of every soul"
    False
  32. T or F:
    The libertarian view of reality holds that human freedom and casual determisim are both true
    False
  33. T or F:
    The compatibilist holds that a couple must be compatible if their marriage is to succeed
    False
  34. T or F:
    Thomas Hobbes was a libertarian
    False
  35. According to Saint Anselm, God's existence could be proven by starting with the
    A. Bible and Scripture
    B. miracles of Jesus
    C. need for a creator
    D. idea of God
    • A. Bible and Scripture
    • B. miracles of Jesus
    • C. need for a creator
    • D. idea of God
  36. According to the ontological proof of God's existence
    A. God is the greatest conceivable or the most perfect being
    B. evil is necessary for free will
    C. God is the unmoved mover
    D. God is the uncaused cause
    • A. God is the greatest conceivable or the most perfect being
    • B. evil is necessary for free will
    • C. God is the unmoved mover
    • D. God is the uncaused cause
  37. The principle of universal explanation states that
    A. every positive fact of reality has an explanation
    B. God is the uncaused cause
    C. acceptable explanations are always scientific testable
    D. some explanations are universally accepted
    • A. every positive fact of reality has an explanation
    • B. God is the uncaused cause
    • C. acceptable explanations are always scientific testable
    • D. some explanations are universally accepted
  38. For Saint Thomas Aquinas, God was
    A. an enigma wrapped in a mystery
    B. an object of mystical intuition
    C. an uncaused cause
    D. a something; I know not what
    • A. an enigma wrapped in a mystery
    • B. an object of mystical intuition
    • C. an uncaused cause
    • D. a something; I know not what
  39. To prove God's role as a designer of the universe, William Paley draws an analogy to finding a
    A. Bible
    B. butterfly
    C. moths adapting to changing environments
    D. watch
    • A. Bible
    • B. butterfly
    • C. moths adapting to changing environments
    • D. watch
  40. According to someone like Sigmund Freud, God is
    A. a creation of man to soothe his fear
    B. the greatest conceivable being
    C. the uncaused cause
    D. the unmoved mover
    • A. a creation of man to soothe his fear
    • B. the greatest conceivable being
    • C. the uncaused cause
    • D. the unmoved mover
  41. As discussed in this episode, the reality of the big bang theory as an account of the origin of the universe
    A. proves God does not exist
    B. proves God must exist
    C. neither supports nor undermines the possibility of God's existence
    D. proves God once existed but not now exist
    • A. proves God does not exist
    • B. proves God must exist
    • C. neither supports nor undermines the possibility of God's existence
    • D. proves God once existed but not now exist
  42. Darwin's theory of evolution raised problems for the traditional argument from design since
    A. according to Darwin there is no design or order
    B. design and order could be accounted for naturalistically
    C. with so much intricate design and order there must be more than one God
    D. evil in the design raises questions about God's goodness
    • A. according to Darwin there is no design or order
    • B. design and order could be accounted for naturalistically
    • C. with so much intricate design and order there must be more than one God
    • D. evil in the design raises questions about God's goodness
  43. The problem of evil initially claims that if God all good, all knowing, all powerful, and there is in fact evil, then
    A. God cannot be all of those things or God doesn't exist
    B. God has abandoned Earth
    C. mysticism is the only solution
    D. polytheism is true
    • A. God cannot be all of those things or God doesn't exist
    • B. God has abandoned Earth
    • C. mysticism is the only solution
    • D. polytheism is true
  44. T or F:
    Monotheism is the belief that there is only one God
    True
  45. T or F:
    The ontological argument is an argument for the existence of God deduced from the nature of God's being.
    True
  46. T or F:
    One version of the arguement from design argues that "it is necessary to admit that there is a first efficient cause"
    False
  47. T or F:
    Spinoza supported pantheism, the belief that everything is God and God is everything
    True
  48. T or F:
    The agnostic holdexistence of evil t the s thaproves conclusively that there is no God.
    False
  49. Religious experiences are
    A. always mystical experiences
    B. always visions of saints and angels
    C. not of one kind but varied
    D. not had by children
    • A. always mystical experiences
    • B. always visions of saints and angels
    • C. not of one kind but varied
    • D. not had by children
  50. The content or interpretation of mystical experience is said to be
    A. universal and constant
    B. only of God
    C. only of Vishnu
    D. culturally relative
    • A. universal and constant
    • B. only of God
    • C. only of Vishnu
    • D. culturally relative
  51. According to Rudolf Otto, the essential element in religious experience is an awareness of another as holy and divine, and this awareness is characterized by
    A. awe and dread
    B. joy and fun
    C. pleasure and playfulness
    D. fear and giddiness
    • A. awe and dread
    • B. joy and fun
    • C. pleasure and playfulness
    • D. fear and giddiness
  52. A universal feature of all mstical experiences is
    A. unity or union
    B. insight into the basic structure of the universe
    C. a profound separation from that which is not human
    D. a terror as one approaches the existential abyss
    • A. unity or union
    • B. insight into the basic structure of the universe
    • C. a profound separation from that which is not human
    • D. a terror as one approaches the existential abyss
  53. Mystical experiences are found in
    A. only Eastern religious traditions
    B. Eastern and some native American Indian religious traditions
    C. Eastern and Middle Eastern (Islamic) religious traditions
    D. all of the world's major religions
    • A. only Eastern religious traditions
    • B. Eastern and some native American Indian religious traditions
    • C. Eastern and Middle Eastern (Islamic) religious traditions
    • D. all of the world's major religions
  54. According to the extrovertive mystical experience
    A. one enters into "the deepest and darkest part of oneself, detaching oneself from one's ordinary state of consciousness"
    B. the world around one is transfigured and transformed, giving one the experience of all distinctions and categories of individuals
    C. the world around one is transfigured and transformed, giving one the experience of all distinctions becoming one
    D. one enters into "the deepest and darkest part of oneself, attaching oneself to one's ordinary state of consciousness"
    • A. one enters into "the deepest and darkest part of oneself, detaching oneself from one's ordinary state of consciousness"
    • B. the world around one is transfigured and transformed, giving one the experience of all distinctions and categories of individuals
    • C. the world around one is transfigured and transformed, giving one the experience of all distinctions becoming one
    • D. one enters into "the deepest and darkest part of oneself, attaching oneself to one's ordinary state of consciousness"
  55. A central philosophical question regarding mystical experience is
    A. whether or not such experiences eer really happen
    B. whether or not drugs can induce mystical states
    C. whether or not the mustical state is a powerful but essentially personal, subjective experience
    D. why do more women than men have mystical experiences
    • A. whether or not such experiences eer really happen
    • B. whether or not drugs can induce mystical states
    • C. whether or not the mustical state is a powerful but essentially personal, subjective experience
    • D. why do more women than men have mystical experiences
  56. The ethical test of mystical experience concerns the power of such experiences to
    A. make criminals turn themselves in
    B. profoundly change one to be better
    C. Demonstrate to those who have nto had such an experience just how good the experience is
    D. allow the individual to gaze directly upon God's goodness
    • A. make criminals turn themselves in
    • B. profoundly change one to be better
    • C. Demonstrate to those who have nto had such an experience just how good the experience is
    • D. allow the individual to gaze directly upon God's goodness
  57. According to the principle of credulity
    A. the younger a person is the more credulous that person's belief will be
    B. experiences ought never to be taken at their face value
    C. experiences ought to be taken at their face value even in the face of some positive reason for challenge
    D. experiences ought to be taken at their face value in the absence of some positive reason for challenge
    • A. the younger a person is the more credulous that person's belief will be
    • B. experiences ought never to be taken at their face value
    • C. experiences ought to be taken at their face value even in the face of some positive reason for challenge
    • D. experiences ought to be taken at their face value in the absence of some positive reason for challenge
  58. For William James, a person should choose a belief when there is insuficient evidence for belief, if the options presented are
    A. very appealing, comfortable, and fun
    B. forced, living, and monumental
    C. isolated, clear, and popular
    D. profound, theoretical , and abstract
    • A. very appealing, comfortable, and fun
    • B. forced, living, and monumental
    • C. isolated, clear, and popular
    • D. profound, theoretical , and abstract
  59. The syndrome of hyper-religiosity is associated with
    A. anemics
    B. diabetics
    C. epileptics
    D. sinusitis
    • A. anemics
    • B. diabetics
    • C. epileptics
    • D. sinusitis
  60. T or F:
    William James in "The Will to Believe" wrote: "Do no decide, but leave the question open,' is itself a decision"
    True
  61. T or F:
    A numinous experience is often characterized by feelings of terror, mystery, and bliss.
    True
  62. T or F:
    According to Kierkegaard, God is not subject to rational, objective analysis
    True
  63. T or F:
    Paul Tillich claimed that "depth is what the word God means, the source of your being, of your ultimate concern, of what you take seriously without any reservation"
    True
  64. T or F:
    According to feminist theologian Mary Daly, the male conception of God has ahd a profoundly oppressive impact on women.
    True

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