Anatomy Chapter 19
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Antagonistic pairs of muscles
when one muscle moves in one direction, its antagonist moves in the opposite direction
muscles work together to bring about movement.
- partial contraction of muscle.
- -Unconscious action
- -Keeps muscles in a constant state of readiness
- -Dictates posture
Slight tension in the muscle that is always present, even when at rest.
used to describe someone when muscle tone is lacking
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
a chemical used in muscle contraction.
- a waste product resulting from breakdown of ATP
- -causes the tired and sometimes burning feeling of muscle fatigue.
- bundles of long muscle fibers
- -contract (shorten) when stimulated
- -relax (return to their original position) when stimulus subsides.
a fibrous sheath that covers, supports, and separates muscles.
-Contains the muscle's blood, lymph, and nerve supply.
a red pigment in muscles
attaches muscles to bone.
strongest tendon in the body
- tendons located behind the knee.
- -Responsible for extending the hips and flexing the knees.
a wide, flat connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
- Where the muscle fiber and nerve ending meet
- -where synapse occurs
- released at the neuromuscular junction.
- -used by the nerve endings to send an impulse across the synapse to the muscle.
- -causes muscle to contract.
breaks down excess acetylcholine and stops overstimulation of muscle.
- when a muscle shortens and thickens as it contracts.
- -happens when you life a heavy object.
- muscle length does not change but muscle tension increases
- -happens when pushing against an immovable object, like a wall.
jerky response to a stimulus
abnormal contraction of muscle caused by “rapid fire” impulses.
-striated- have light and dark bands of fiber
- -smooth- makes up most organs of body
- -cardiac- in heart
-appears striated under microscope
ability of a muscle to shorten and thicken upon stimulus.
The ability of a muscle to stretch
ability of a muscle to return to its original length after stretching
ability of a muscle to respond to stimulation.
muscle responsible for movement when a group of muscles is contracting at the same time
specialized synergists that stabilize the nonmoving part of a prime mover
- where a muscle begins or is attached to a bone.
- -a fixed attachment
- where a muscle ends
- -more movable.
shoulder muscle that looks like an upside down delta.
muscle that moves a bone away from midline.
muscle that moves a bone toward the midline.
muscle that lifts a bone.
muscle that lowers a bone
muscle that bends a joint
muscle that straightens a joint
muscle that moves a joint on its axis
a ringlike muscle that closes an opening
overstretching or tearing of muscle fibers
stretching or tearing of a ligament or joint
when a visceral organ bulges through a weakness in a muscular wall.
causes head to tilt to affected side
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