Anatomy Chapter 19 Mucular system

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lorikuzma
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70050
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Anatomy Chapter 19 Mucular system
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2011-03-01 22:33:41
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Chapter 19
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Mucular system
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  1. Antagonistic pairs of muscles
  2. when one muscle moves in one direction, its antagonist moves in the opposite direction
  3. Synergistic pairs
  4. muscles work together to bring about movement.
  5. Muscle tone
  6. partial contraction of muscle.
    • -Unconscious action
    • -Keeps muscles in a constant state of readiness
    • -Dictates posture
  7. Tonus
  8. Slight tension in the muscle that is always present, even when at rest.
  9. Flacid (atonic)
  10. used to describe someone when muscle tone is lacking
  11. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
  12. a chemical used in muscle contraction.
  13. Lactic Acid
  14. a waste product resulting from breakdown of ATP
    -causes the tired and sometimes burning feeling of muscle fatigue.
  15. Muscle Structure
  16. bundles of long muscle fibers
    • -contract (shorten) when stimulated
    • -relax (return to their original position) when stimulus subsides.
  17. Fascia
  18. a fibrous sheath that covers, supports, and separates muscles.
  19. -Contains the muscle's blood, lymph, and nerve supply.
  20. Myoglobin
  21. a red pigment in muscles
  22. Tendon
  23. attaches muscles to bone.
  24. Achilles tendon
  25. strongest tendon in the body
  26. Hamstrings
  27. tendons located behind the knee.
    -Responsible for extending the hips and flexing the knees.
  28. Aponeurosis
  29. a wide, flat connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
  30. Neuromuscular junction
  31. Where the muscle fiber and nerve ending meet
    -where synapse occurs
  32. Acetylcholine
  33. released at the neuromuscular junction.
    • -used by the nerve endings to send an impulse across the synapse to the muscle.
    • -causes muscle to contract.
  34. Cholinesterase
  35. breaks down excess acetylcholine and stops overstimulation of muscle.
  36. Isotonic contraction
  37. when a muscle shortens and thickens as it contracts.
    -happens when you life a heavy object.
  38. Isometric contraction
  39. muscle length does not change but muscle tension increases
    -happens when pushing against an immovable object, like a wall.
  40. Twitch
  41. jerky response to a stimulus
  42. Tetany
  43. abnormal contraction of muscle caused by “rapid fire” impulses.
  44. voluntary muscles
    -skeletal muscles

    -striated- have light and dark bands of fiber
  45. involuntary muscle
    • -smooth- makes up most organs of body
    • -cardiac- in heart

    -appears striated under microscope
  46. Contractility
  47. ability of a muscle to shorten and thicken upon stimulus.
  48. Extensibility
  49. The ability of a muscle to stretch
  50. Elasticity
  51. ability of a muscle to return to its original length after stretching
  52. Irritability
  53. ability of a muscle to respond to stimulation.
  54. Prime mover
  55. muscle responsible for movement when a group of muscles is contracting at the same time
  56. Fixator
  57. specialized synergists that stabilize the nonmoving part of a prime mover
  58. Origin
  59. where a muscle begins or is attached to a bone.
    -a fixed attachment
  60. Insertion
  61. where a muscle ends
    -more movable.
  62. Deltoid
  63. shoulder muscle that looks like an upside down delta.
  64. Abductor
  65. muscle that moves a bone away from midline.
  66. Adductor
  67. muscle that moves a bone toward the midline.
  68. Levator
  69. muscle that lifts a bone.
  70. Depressor
  71. muscle that lowers a bone
  72. Flexor
  73. muscle that bends a joint
  74. Extensor
  75. muscle that straightens a joint
  76. Rotator
  77. muscle that moves a joint on its axis
  78. Sphincter
  79. a ringlike muscle that closes an opening
  80. Strain
  81. overstretching or tearing of muscle fibers
  82. Sprain
  83. stretching or tearing of a ligament or joint
  84. Myalgia
  85. muscle pain
  86. Hernia
  87. when a visceral organ bulges through a weakness in a muscular wall.
  88. Torticollis (wryneck)
  89. causes head to tilt to affected side

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