substance abuse is a pattern of drug use that may lead to ______, _______, and ________, or physical problems
there are more deaths, illnesses, and disabilities from ______ _______ than any other preventable disease
a pt that uses drugs recreationally may _______ themselves when a stressful situation like a dental appt is anticipated
who's responsibility is it to view chemical dependency of a pt as an illness and to be aware of characteristics that suggest poss substance abuse?
what are the alcohols used for drinking? (2)
ethyl alcohol or ethanol
what is considered moderate alcohol use for men and women that is not considered harmful for the average adult?
2 for men
1 for women
so....what's the point of that?
what develops in an unhealthy alcohol use person?
(early stage problems)
agressiveness, mood instability, kmpaired judgement; impaired social or occupational functioning; impaired attention and memory; stupor or coma are _______ _______ from the effects of alcohol intoxication
slurred speech, incoordination, unsteady gait, and nystagmus (rapid eye movement) are all ________ characteristics of alcohol intoxication
irresponsible actions in work and family settings are _________ to alcohol intoxication
accidents with resultant bruises, ftr's, suicide or brain trauma are all effects of _______ _______
drinking and driving, sucicide, sexual assault, high-risk sex, alcohol-induced learning impairments are consequences of _________ ________
four main signs of alcoholism are:
loss of control
a strong need or compulsion to drink is
the inability to limit one's drinking on any given occasion is _____ __ ______
loss of control
withdrawal symptoms, such as nausea, sweating , shakiness, and anxiousness, when all alcohol use is stopped after a period of heavy drinking is called _______ ________
the need to drink greater amounts of alcohol in order to get intoxicated. other signs include amnesia and binge drinking
what are the two genes involved in the predisposition to alcohol dependence?
(identified by COGA)
a defective allele (varient) of the gene ALDH2 protects carriers from developing _______ to make them ill after drinking alcohol
t/f children of alcohol-dependent parents are exposed to a lower level of multiple risk factors that lead to alcohol-related problems
false! exposed to a HIGHER level
t/f children of alcohol-dependent parents are decreased sensitive to alcohol's intoxicating effects. increased sensitivity to the anxiety-reducing effects
both are true
upon intake of alcohol, it is absorbed _______ from the stomach and small intestine into the _________
alcohol is transported to the ______ for metabolism
more than ___% of ingested alcohol is converted into acetaldehyde, then acetone and finally into carbon dioxide by water action of various liver _____
high _________ levels and chronic alcohol consumption impair liver function and lead to liver damage
within ___ minutes after ingestion, alcohol can be detected in the blood
less than ___% of alcohol is excreted directly through the lungs, skin, and kidney (breath, sweat, and urine)
a person's alcohol level can be determined by testing what four things?
water vapor in the breath
what is BAC?
blood alcohol concentration
what is tested by law enforcement for a breathalizer test?
BAC is then converted into equivalent blood alcohol ________
what is the legal level of intoxication?
BAC is the amount of alcohol by ______, in a set volume of blood
BAC is measured in __/___
BAC of .10% is equivalent of .10 grams of _____ mililiters of blood
t/f BAC measurement reflects a person's drinking rate and rate of metabolism
alcohol is metabolized more ____ than it is absorbed
when does the BAC increase?
when the alcohol is consumed faster than drinks are being metabolized
______ is a powerful depressant of the CNS
in low doses, alcohol can act as a ___________ and as a relaxant. _______ may be produced
in high doses, alcohol can produce __________ effects with reduction of anxiety generally accompanied by reduced alertness and reduced judgement
alcohol-related illnesses may involve any _____ system
what is the MOST outstanding cause of morbidity and mortality from liver diseases?
ALD stands for:
alcoholic liver disease
early stages are reversible with abstinence of _____ ______ with degeneration
inflammation of the liver is:
when healthy cells are replaced by scar tissue it is called:
individuals with hep ____ are more susceptible to ADL
risk for many bacterial infections is increased, particularly pulmonary diseases such as: (5)
alcohol ingestion alters the stomach ______, stimulates _____ acid secretion, and affects ______ function
bleeding lesions may develop in the digestive system with desquamination of the _______ _______ (acute gastritis)
when there is injury to the small intestines, what 3 things occur?
t/f large quantities of alcohol causes the individual to lose interest in nutritional food, which leads to deficiencies
_______ malnutrition develops from direct effects of alcohol on the ___ tract. malabsorption and maldigestion occur following ____ changes in the intestinal wall
what are the cardiovascular disease risks for alcoholics? (5)
coronary artery disease
decreased risk for heart attack and stroke is associated with ____ to ____ use
light to moderate
heavy consumption of alcohol increases the ____ rate from cardiovascular diseases
cardiovascular diseases are associated with early coronary calcification in ____ adults
what are the 8 health hazards of alcohol abuse?
immunity and infection
alcohol use increases the risk of many types of cancers , esp ______ and _____ tracts
alcohol + tobacco = increased _______ (abnormal mass of tissue) of the oral cavity, _____ and larynx
early changes affect intellectual actions, judgement, and learning ability.
long term alcohol abuse combined with malnutrition can lead to damage of both central and peripheral nervous systems
prolonged and heavy alcohol consumption leads to chronic brain damage
these are all part of the ____ and _____ nervous system
central and peripheral
what is a brain disorder of the cerebellum as the result of a thiamine deficiency associated with chronic alcohol consumption calleD?
symptoms of mental confusion, ocular and gait disturbances is called:
persistent learning and memory problems characterized by forgetfulness; easy frustration and lack of muscle coordination; and retrograde and anterograde amnesia is called:
alcohol affects every branch of the ______ system, ____ and _____ through the body's organization of the endocrine hormones
directly and indirectly
a female will experience _______ disturbances, failure to ovulate, and early ________ if they are an alcoholic
an alcoholic male can end up with _______ atrophy, suppression of _______, loss of ______ sperm cells, ______ and failure of gonadal function
fetal alcohol syndrome
prenatal ______ exposure is the LEADING preventable cause of birth defects
alcohol (mostly seen in trailer parks....)
t/f alcohol cannot pass through the placenta because there is a barrier protecting it
FALSE! there is NO placental barrier
alcohol consumption increases the incidence of spontaneous ________ and ________
if a child has FAS, they have ______ and ______ growth retardation and facial _________
prenatal and postnatal
FAS: midface will be _____, depressed; underdeveloped _____. nose will be ______, upturned, with ______ nasal bridge. micrognathia. the ears will have ________ of shape and position
the neurological features of FAS can include _______
_____ _____ system is involved in FAS. reduction in size of _____ ______, cerebellum, or ______ ganglia. they can have problems with _____ or _____ spatial learning
visual or verbal
abstract thinking, planning and organizing are examples of executive functioning of ____
poor coordination, abnormal gait are examples of motor functioning of ____
do FAS peeps have attention or hyperactivity problems
do you think social skills and behavioral dysfunction fall into the category of FAS?