Sociology Exam 2 (NEW)
Card Set Information
Sociology Exam 2 (NEW)
sociology exam 2 deviance
All that human beings learn to do, to use, to produce, to know, and to believe as they grow to maturity and live out their lives.
The tendency to judge other cultures in terms of one's own customs and values.
The reaction people may have when encountering cultural traditions different from their own.
The position that social scientists doing cross-cultural research should view and analyze behaviors and customs within the cultural context in which they occur.
A situation that develops when new patterns of behavior conflict with traditional values. Can occur when technological change is more rapid than are changes in norms and values..
All the things human beings make and use.
Non material culture
The totality of knowledge, beliefs, values, and rules for appropriate behavior that specifies how a people should interact and how they solve their problems.
Norms that allow for differences in individual behavior. Real norms specify how people actually behave, not how they should behave under ideal circumstances.
expectations of what people should do under perfect conditions. The norm that marriage will last "until death do us part" is an ideal norm in American society.
Norms that permit a rather wide degree of individual interpretation as long as certain limits are not overstepped.
Strongly held normas that usually have a moral connotation and are based on the central values of the culture.
Formal rules adopted by a society's political authority.
A sacred prohibition against touching, mentioning, or looking at certain objects, acts, or people.
The distinctive lifestyles, values, norms, and beliefs of certain segments of the population within a society.
The statuses that define an individual.
The patterns of behavior and ways of thinking and feeling that are destinctive for each individual.
The molding of behavior through repeated experiences that link a desired reaction with a particular object or event.
The long and complicated processes of social interactions through which a child learns the intellectual, physical, and social skills needed to function as a member of society.
An important aspect of adult socialization that involves bein gexposed to ideas or values that conflict with what was learned in childhood.
Concept of Self
An awareness of the existence, appearance, and boundaries of one's own body.
Cooley's Looking Glass Self.
The process through which we develop a sense of self.
Consists of the unconscious drives or instincts that Freud believed every human inherits.
Tries to mediate in the conflict between the id and superego.
Consists of society's norms and values, learned in the course of a person's socialization, tha toften conflict with the id's impulses.
The portion of the self that is made up of those things learned through the socialization process from the family, school, peers and so on.
The portion of the self that wishes to have free expression, to be active, and to be spontaneous.
First introduction to society
Aids in socialization
Greatest say in lifestyle issues
Long term exposure is a causal factor behind 1/2 of homicides in the US
Lombroso and Deviance
Criminals are evolutionary throwbacks whose behavior is more apelike than human.
Behavior that fails to conform to the rules or norms fo the group in which it occurs.
Functions of Deviance
Teaches normal behavior by provoding examples of rule violations
Tolerance of deviant behavior
Prevents more serious instances of nonconformity
Dysfunctions of Deviance
It is a threat to the social order because it makes social life unpredictable
It causes confusion about the norms and values of that society.
Internal means of Control
A group's moral code becomes internalized and becomes part of each individual's personal code of conduct that operates even in the absence of reactions by others
External Means of Control
The ways in which others respond to a person's behavior that channel his or her behavior along culturally approved lines.
Types of Sanctions
Accept the culturally validated goal of success but find deviant ways of reaching it.
Reject the importance o fsuccess once they realize they will never achieve it.
Pull back from society
Reject the goals of what to them is an unfair social order and the means of achieving them
People are free to violate norms if they lack intimiate attachments
Importance of violated norms, social identity of the person who violates them, social context of behavior
Differential association theory
Based on the idea that criminal behavior is learned in the context of intimate groups
#1 state in capitol punishment rates per capita
Top three states in excecutions
How many excecutions has OK had?
How many excecutions has the US had?
When did OK first excecution take place?
What issues surround the debate on capitol punishment?
How many states use capitol punishment?
How many states do not use capitol punishment
How many innocent people have been released from death row in OK?
How many innocent people have been released from death row in the US?