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__: producing one or more organisms genetically identical to the “parent” that donated the single cell; called this to differentiate it from gene cloning and more significantly, from cell cloning- the division of an asexually reproducing cell into a collection of genetically identical cells.
The current interest in __arises primarily from its potential to generate stem cells, which can in turn generate many different tissues.
The successful cloning of whole plants from single differentiated cells was accomplished during the 1950s by __ and students, who worked with carrot plants.
· Found that __taken from the root and incubated in culture medium could grow into normal adult plants, each genetically identical to the parent plant.
· Showed that __ does not necessarily involve irreversible changes in the DNA; in plants, mature cells can “__” and then give rise to all the specialized cell types of the organism.
o Any cell with this potential is said to be __.
- FC Steward
- differentiated cells
Differentiated cells from animals generally do not divide in culture, much less develop into the multiple cell types of a new organism.
· Their approach was to remove the __of an unfertilized or fertilized egg and replace it with the nucleus of a differentiated cell, a procedure called __.
· If the nucleus from the differentiated donor cell retains its full genetic capability, then it should be able to direct development of the recipient cell into all the tissues and organs of an organism.
- nuclear transplantation