Chapter 43

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anime1003
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70101
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Chapter 43
Updated:
2011-03-03 16:12:39
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Biology II
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Exam II
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  1. Energy for the body
    • Building blocks of the body
    • needed for function
  2. Alcohol (grams)
    7 calories
  3. Protien (grams)
    4 calories per gram
  4. fat (grams)
    9 Calories per gram
  5. Carbs (grams)
    4 calories per gram
  6. 2 types of fat
    • Glycogen
    • Adipose
  7. Glycogen
    Short term storage of fat
  8. Adipose
    Long term storage of fat
  9. C
    1000 calories
  10. Calorie needs vary by:
    • Body mass
    • age
    • sex
    • activity level
  11. Undernourishment
    not enough food for the body (body feeds on its self)
  12. Overnourishment
    Ganing weight
  13. Malnurishment
    Not enough nutrients
  14. Building blocks of body
    • amino acids
    • simple sugars
    • fatty acid
    • nucleic acids
  15. essential nutrients
    components the liver cannot synthesize
  16. Linoleic (phospholipid)
    Cannot be made in the body
  17. Vitamins
    • Cannot be synthesized
    • work as coenzymes
  18. RDA
    Reccomended Daily Allowance
  19. Fat soluble vatamins
    can be stored in fat
  20. VAtamin A ( benefits)
    • Eye pigment
    • antioxidant
  21. Vitamin D (benefits)
    Calcium and Phosphorus uptake (bones)
  22. Vitamin E (benifit)
    Antioxident
  23. Vatimin K (bennefit)
    Blood Clotting, Ca uptake
  24. Water souluble vitamins
    • Less likely to over dose
    • (vitamin C)
  25. Vitamin A deficiency
    Blindness
  26. Vitamin D defficiency
    Rickets
  27. Vitamin C deficiency
    Scurvy
  28. B1 (thiamine) Disorders
    • Beriberi
    • Janapnese ship crews only ate white rice
  29. B12, B3, B9 disorders
    • Anemia
    • Pellegra- diarrea, dermatitis, dementia, death
    • Anemia
  30. Essential electrolytes
    • K+
    • Na+
    • Cl-
  31. Essential Minerals
    • Calcium
    • Iron
    • Sulfur
    • Phosphorus
    • Flourine
    • Iodine
  32. 4 ways to feed
    • Suspension
    • Fluid
    • Deposit
    • Bulk
  33. Gastrovascular Cavity
    Extracellular and intracellular
  34. Intracellular feeding
    • Done by diffusion
    • (sponges)
  35. Alimentary cannal
    Tube within a tube
  36. Intracellular
    Individual cells absorb and break down nutrients to function
  37. Protien digestion
    Stomache
  38. Peristalisis
    muscle contraction of the esophagus
  39. Sphincter
    Control speed and direction of food
  40. Saliva
    • Contain lubricant
    • Musin
  41. Amalyse
    • Breaks down startch
    • Buffers to regulate ph
    • Anti-microbial
  42. Tongue
    secretes Lypase
  43. Lypase
    Breaks down fat
  44. Bolis
    chewed food
  45. Pepsin
    Breaks down protien
  46. Cheif Cells
    create pepsinogen
  47. Pepsinogen
    • inactive pepsin
    • Activated by HCl
  48. Cause of Ulcers
    Bacteria (Helicobacter pylori)
  49. Nuetralizes stomache acid
    Bicarbonate
  50. Molecueles digested in the small intestine
    • Protiens
    • lipids
    • carohydrates
  51. Proteases
    Finish the break down of amino acids
  52. HCl (affect on protien)
    Denatures
  53. Pepsin (affect on protien)
    Cleaves peptides from protien
  54. Pacreatic Proteases (affect on protiens)
    Cleave amino acids from peptides
  55. Trypsinogen
    inactive trypsin
  56. Hormone Secretin
    causes salvation
  57. Cholecystokinin (CCK)
    • Source: Duodenum
    • Effect: Gall bladder releases bile
  58. Enterogastrone
    • Source: Duodenum
    • Effect: Inhibits peristalis
  59. Gastrin
    • Source: Stomache
    • Effect: release of HCl and Pepsinogen
  60. Pancreatic Amalyse (carb breakdown)
    Breaks down into monsacharides
  61. Caecum
    Connects large and small intestine
  62. Colon (funcations)
    • water reabsorbation
    • Salt excreation
    • Feces
  63. Grehlin (stomache)
    Stimulates appitite
  64. leptin
    stimulates appetite
  65. Fructose
    • most lipogenic sugar
    • doesn't stimulate insulin production
  66. Diabetes Mellitus (I)
    can't synthesize insulin
  67. Diabetes Mellitus II
    defective insulin receptors

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