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2011-03-02 01:12:25
pharmacy pulmonary antibiotics asthma

Pharmacy - pulmonary
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  1. Dobutamine
    selective beta-one receptor agonist; commonly used in treatment of cardiac arrest/shock; can also be used in short-term treatment of heart failure; i.m. or i.v. only; short half-life (about 2 mins - longer than epinephrine); acts on the heart - inotropic effects (not chronotropic); sometimes used in stress tests - revelation of cardiac abnormalities
  2. Phenylephrine
    selective alpha-one adrenergic receptor agonist; useful as a decongestant; may be administered orally or by inhalation; half-life of several hours; potent vasoconstricter; decreases volume of nasal mucosa; contraindicated by hypertension & use of MAO inhibitors
  3. Pseudoephedrine
    amphetamine-like drug that binds to transporters & causes catecholamine release - indirect sympathomimetic; typically administered orally; half-life of several hours; typically does not cross the blood-brain barrier; few effects on the CNS (distinguishes from methylphenidate & amphetamine); commonly used as a nasal decongestant
  4. Propanalol
    non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor; commonly used in treatment of hypertension & heart disease & angina & cardiac arrhythmias & muscle tremor; decreases HR by reducing both strength of contractions & HR; inhibits release of renin via inhibition of beta-one receptors in the kidney; contraindicated by asthma
  5. Phentolamine
    non-selective alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist; typically given orally; half-life of several hours; main use = treatment of inoperable pheochromocytoma (tumor of the adrenal medulla that causes release of epinephrine/over-activation of sympathetic system); induces hypotension & can be used to reverse hypertensive crisis (such as can be caused by MAO inhibitors + wine + cheese)
  6. Yohimbine
    selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor; prepared from bark of tree native to Africa; can be taken orally; half-life of several hours; used to treat sexual dysfunction; side effects = hypertension & sleep disorders & CNS effects - dangerous to combine with MAO inhibitors
  7. Reserpine
    binds to & blocks vesicular monoamine transporters - blocks vesicular packaging & release of catecholamines; indirectly-acting sympatholytic; can be taken orally; has a long half-life; used in the past to treat hypertension but no longer due to severe CNS effects (depression & impaired cognition); use for treatment of Raynaud's syndrome
  8. Zilueton
    leukotriene modifier; blocks 5-LPO; PO only; systemic; elevates hepatic enzymes & has numerous drug interactions; used in treatment of asthma
  9. Omalizumab
    immunomodulator; antibody that blocks IgE binding to its receptor; IV only; treatment for allergen-based asthma; may produce anaphylaxis
  10. Abciximab
    anti-platelet; Fab fragment of chimeric monoclonal antibody against glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (receptor on platelet); prevents binding of fibrinogen; IV only; expensive; may cause allergic response
  11. Direct thrombin inhibitors
  12. Anistreplase
    acylated streptokinase-plasminogen complex; acylation prevents rapid hydrolysis - extends the half-life of the complex (as compared to streptokinase alone)
  13. Physostigmine
    reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; covalently binds acetylcholinesterase but is eventually degraded; used in treatment of glaucoma & to treat overdose of muscarinic ACh blockers (such as MAO inhibitors)
  14. Organophosphates
    irreversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; non-specifically activate ACh; 'SLUDGE' is an acronym that describes the effects of organophosphates (salivation lacrimation urination defecation/diaphoresis gastrointestinal emesis)
  15. Echothiophate
    long-acting organophosphate used in the treatment of glaucoma
  16. Pralidoxome
    used in the treatment of acute organophosphate poisoning; reactivates inactivated acetylcholinesterase molecules
  17. Minocycline
    tetracycline antibiotic; has anti-inflammatory as well as antibiotic properties; used as treatment for acne because of anti-inflammatory properties