# research methods

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1. Other names for "tests"
• assessment
• test
• measure
• instrument
• scale
2. reliability
• a test is reliable if the data is consistent over time when the test is
• repeated
3. Tests of responsibility
• Test-retest
• split-test
4. Test-retest
when someone is administered the same test over time
5. Split-test
Taking parts of a test and comparing those parts to one another
6. Validity
Is the test supposed to test what it is supposed to test?
7. Tests of validity
• content validity
• construct validity
• predictive validity
8. content validity
does the content make sense according to the topic?
9. predictive validity
does it predict a difference in behavior?
10. Theory
A general statement about the relationship between constructs or events.
11. Hypothesis
• Formal prediction about the relationship between two or more variables
• that is logically derived from the theory
• derived from a theory
12. correlational research
• When: used to investigate relationships between variables
• How:
• measure both or all groups involved in study
• limit: does not give a
• cause
• keywords: relationship, related, linked to, associated
13. Correlation coefficient
• between -1 to 1
• the closer to one the correlation is, the stronger
• the relationship is
14. positive correlation
• Both variables travel in the same direction
• 0-1 (0 to .2= no
• correlation, .2 to .4= weak correlation, .4 to .6 =moderate correlation,
• .6 to .8 =strong correlation
• Example: The more time one spends
• studying, the better grades that person will recieve on an exam
15. Negative Correlation
• Both variables that travel in opposite directions
• -0 to -1 (0 to
• -.2= no correlation,
• -.2 to -.4= weak correlation, .-4 to .-6
• =moderate correlation, -.6 to -.8
• =strong correlation
• Example:
• The more time someone spends partying the person is most likely to
• recive a lower score on an exam
16. Experimental Research
• When: when you want to draw cause and effect
• How: manipulate one of
• the variables under controlled conditions
• limit: hard to make
• entirely random and hard to control variables
17. Independent variable
• The variable in a experiment that is being manipulated
• causes direct
• variable
• Example: Different temperatures may cause subjects to
• score higher on test ( temperature is independant variable)
18. Dependent variable
The outcome that is affected by the independent variable
19. Why you may want more than 1 Independent variable
There may be interactions between variables
20. Why you may want more than 1 Dependent variable
The Independant variable may have influenced another dependent variable
21. A true experiment
• A manipulated independent variable while everything else is controlled
• randomly
• assigned groups
• There will be an infinite amount of independent
• variables if groups aren't randomly assigned
22. Experimental Groups
The group that recieves treatment(independent variable)
23. Control Group
The group that doesn't get treatment
24. Sampling Bias
• subjects tested are not chosen by random
• corrected by random
• assignment
25. Confounding bias
• other variables may have affected dependent variable
• corrected by
• randomly assigning groups
26. Placebo effects
• People belive that treatment actually works
• corrected by blind study
27. Experimentor effect
• The experimenter's expectations influence results
• corrected by a
• double blind study
28. Social desirability effect
• subject is not comfortable with test or answers on test
• anonymity or
• non-self report
29. Significance Test
• Tests that determine if group averages were found from real effects or
• just by chance
• Example: ANOVA, Chi-square, or t-test
30. P-value
The number that determines the significance between dependent variables
31. Interpreting P-value
• n = number of subjects in group
• N = total number of subjects in group
• P
• < .05 means that there is a significant difference
• P > .10
• means that there is not a significant difference
• P between .05 and
• .10 means that there is a marginally significant. This usually means
• that you need to get more data and withold judgement
32. Replication
• When an experiment is done by another researcher. If similar results are
• found in future experiments then the experiment is seen as significant
• in terms of a genuine relationship

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 Author: starvinmarvin623 ID: 70122 Filename: research methods Updated: 2011-03-02 07:09:01 Tags: research methods Folders: Description: research methods review Show Answers:

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