PH Exam 2 Epidemiology

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PH Exam 2 Epidemiology
2011-03-21 22:13:05
Nursing PH

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  1. (book) Define Reliability
    The precision of a measuring instrument, which depends on its consistency from one time of use to another and its accuracy
  2. (book) Define Validity
    • Accuracy of a test or measurement
    • How closely it measures what it claims to measure
  3. (book) List Characteristics of a Successful Screening Program
    • Valid
    • Reliable
    • Capable of large group administration
    • Innocuous (few SE, minimally invasive)
    • High yield
  4. (book) Define Sensitivity and Specificity
    • Sensitivity: quantifies how accurately the test identifies those WITH the condition or trait
    • Specificity: WITHOUT
  5. Define Research
    • A scientific method by which data is systematically collected to describe, explain, and/or predict events
    • *specific to health
    • ex. hurricane, tornados
  6. Define Evidence-Based Practice
    The conscientious and judicious use of current best evidence to guide health care decisions
  7. Define Epidemiology
    • The scientific method most commonly used in public health
    • The foundation of EBP in public health and public health nursing
  8. What is Epidemiology?
    • Study of the distribution and determinants of health and disease in human populations
    • The application of this knowledge to improve the health of populations
  9. List the who, what, where, when, and why in Epidemiology
    • Who-population (general pop, children)
    • What- determinants (overnourished, undernourished)
    • Where- distribution (rural, urban)
    • When- frequency (throughout year, seasons)
    • Why- causation
  10. Define Descriptive Epidemiology
    Describes: who, what, where, when
  11. Define Analytic Epidemiology
    Examines relationships btwn the who, what, where, when to determine why
  12. List Descriptors for Who: Person
    • Physical: age, gender, race
    • Social: income, education
    • Behavior: lifestyle
  13. List Descriptors for Where: Place
    • Geography: forming vs urban
    • Space: overcrowding
    • Regional economic factors
    • Environment: exposure
  14. List Descriptors for What: Health Effects
    • Physical
    • Psychological
    • Social
  15. List Descriptors for When: Time
    • Frequency
    • General patterns
  16. Discuss Analytic Epidemiology: WHY
    answered by investigating associations btwn factors r/t who, what, when, where
  17. Discuss Epidemiological Models
    • (Two most commonly used models explain associations among factors)
    • Epidemiological triangle: host, agent, environment- more specific to acute dx
    • Web of causation
  18. Define Agent
    Ability to cause injury or illness
  19. Define Host
    • Any animate object harbouring dx
    • Level of susceptibility
    • factor-age
  20. Define Environment
    • Any external conditions
    • physical factors (eliminate, pop distribution)
    • Social factors
  21. Discuss Web of Causation Concept
    • How factors lead to chronic dx
    • Health d/o occur when an agent is present in a susceptible host under environmental conditions favorable to pathology
  22. Define Ratio
    • Describes the relationship btwn two quantities
    • Used to compare two populations
  23. Define Risk
    Statistical probability that an event will occur
  24. Define Odds
    Statistical odds of having an event occur
  25. Define Rate
    • A measure of the frequency of a health event within a specific period of time
    • numerator: # of occurances
    • denominator: total # of population of interest
  26. List commonly used rates
    • Fertility rate
    • Infant mortality rate
    • Mortality
  27. List sources of data
    • Routinely collected data: vital statistics, birth, death, cancers, national center for health
    • Data collected for other reasons: hospitals, length of stay
    • Epidemiologic data: surveillance- communicable dx, pop screening
  28. List Scientific Studies in Epidemiology
    • Cross-sectional studies
    • Case Control studies
    • Cohort studies: prospective, retrospective
  29. Discuss Case-control study
    • Start in Present and look back to see why
    • Disease? Exposed or not exposed
  30. Discuss Cohort study: Retrospective
    • Start in Past
    • Exposed in past? Positive for dx now?
  31. Discuss Cohort study: Prospective
    • Start in Present: Risk for future
    • Exposed currently? Dx in future?
  32. Discuss Cross-sectional study
    Collect data on everything at once (exposures and presence or absence of dx)
  33. Discuss Population Screening
    • Validity
    • Sensitivity
    • Specificity
    • Reliability