CHFD 3900 Exam 1

Card Set Information

Author:
jacquiroxx
ID:
70191
Filename:
CHFD 3900 Exam 1
Updated:
2011-03-02 13:27:22
Tags:
Prenatal Infant
Folders:

Description:
3900
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user jacquiroxx on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Greeks & Romans
    • Advocated harsh practices to shape infants' bodies & to build moral character
    • Practiced infanticide
  2. Renaissance
    First written child-rearing philosophies
  3. Romanticism
    • Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    • Children bring goodness (not original sin) into the world
    • Education needs to be sensitive to the needs & nature of the infant
    • Freedom & happiness are emphasized
  4. Empiricism
    • John Locke
    • Infant's mind is a blank slate
    • Education should be structured & provide skills to make rational choices
    • Reason & realism are emphasized
    • Babies are miniature adults
  5. Babies in the 19th Century
    • Infancy & childhood as valuable life stages
    • Individuality, autonomy, self-determination are valued
    • Full-time maternal care best for child development
  6. Arnold Gesell
    • Believed in nature (not nurture)
    • Emphasized maturation
  7. John Watson
    • Believed in nurtuer (not nature)
    • Emphasized learning
  8. Sigmund Freud
    • Believed in psychological experience (not nature or nurture)
    • Emphasized early experience
  9. Developmental Change
    • Development is irreversible & permanent
    • Sequential order
    • Continuous changes (like hair growth)
    • Discontinuous changes (like development from sitting to walking) - can't be quantified, you can only observe the changes
  10. Quantitative Research
    • Focuses on the quantity
    • Indexed by numerical data
  11. Qualitative Research
    • Focused on the meaning/quality of the behavior
    • Uses verbal or pictoral descriptions
  12. Direct Manipulation
    • Either the variable is presented or not
    • ie- Mothers sing or they don't sing
  13. Random Assignment
    • Variables are assigned randomly so you can compare the groups
    • ie- control group (no singing) and experimental group (singing)
  14. Cause-Effect Relationship
    The only way to ensure your results is to rule out all other possibilities
  15. Paired-Preference
    Relies on differences in infant looking time to assess perceptual preference
  16. Repeated Exposure
    Show 1 photo for a long time, then show a second photo. If the baby looks interested in the second photo (a renewed interest), they can see the difference
  17. Habituation
    The gradual decrease in looking or listening time across repeated presentations of the same stimulus
  18. Reliability
    Consistency in measure
  19. Validity
    Ability to measure what is intended to measure
  20. Blindness
    Participants & experimenters whould be unaware of the purpose of the experiment and/or participant group
  21. Representative Sample
    Can those in the study be generalized to the larger population?
  22. Constant Comparative Method
    Comparing current interpretations to previous ones
  23. Generalizability
    The ability of the results of a study to be correct for people other than those who are part of the larger population
  24. Biological Approach
    • Based on evolutionary perspective (natural selection)
    • Species-specific behavior (ie- only humans can talk)
    • Critical periods
  25. Genotype
    • Genetic code
    • Made up of DNA molecules
  26. Phenotype
    • Physical manifestation of the genotype
    • Can be affected by the environment
  27. Species-Specific Behavior
    • Behavior only seen in one species
    • ie- Only humans can talk
  28. Critical Periods
    • A limited & specific time window during which the environment has a maximum influence on development
    • Resulting change is permanent & irreversible
    • ie- Binocular vision
  29. Information Processing Theories
    Attention <-> Perception/Recognition <-> Recall memory <-> Thought
  30. Ecological Systems Theory
    Bronfenbrenner
  31. Interactive Systems Theory
    • Sandler (mother-infant talk and feedback)
    • Vygotsky (sociocultural theory; ZPD)
  32. Sociocultural Theory
    • Vygotsky
    • Guided participation between child & adult
    • ZPD
  33. Dynamic Systems Theory
    • Macroscopic behavior is predictable and stable
    • Microscopic behavior is unpredictable. "Chaos"
  34. Indeterminism
    The idea that not all natural phenomena can be predicted from known laws or principles
  35. Human Genome Project
    Identify all of the genes in human DNA
  36. Timeline of Fetal Development
    • 1-14 days: Zygote
    • 2-8 weeks: Embryo
    • 2 mos- birth: Fetus
  37. Zygote
    • A fertilized egg
    • 1-14 days gestation
    • Cell division
    • Usually not susceptible to teratogens
  38. Embryonic Period
    • 3-8 weeks gestation
    • Starting to take shape of a baby
    • The most critical period (major structures developing)
  39. Blastocyst
    • If it doesn't implant, the baby won't continue to develop
    • Three parts:
    • Embryonic disk
    • Amniotic sak
    • Yolk sak
  40. Corticotropin
    Releasing hormone rapidly increases around 40 weeks gestation
  41. Lightening
    • Turning upside down
    • 2-4 weeks before labor
  42. Braxton Hicks Contractions
    • False labor
    • Irregular uterus contractions
  43. Rupture of Membranes
    • Water breaking
    • 24 hours before labor
  44. Labor: Stage 1
    • "Dilation & effacement of cervix"
    • Baby's head is engaged in cervix
    • Contractions begin
    • Latent: 5-8 min apart / 30 secs long / lasts 8-12 hr.
    • Active: 3-5 min apart / 45-60 secs long / lasts 4 hr. / 3-4 cm dilated
    • Transition: very freqent / 80 secs long / lasts 30-60 min / 8-10 cm dilated
  45. Labor: Stage 2
    • "Expulsion"
    • From full opening of cervix to birth of the infant
    • Lasts 20 minutes to 2 hours
  46. Labor: Stage 3
    • "Placental expulsion"
    • 5 to 20 minutes after the infant is born
  47. Labor: Stage 4
    • "Recovery"
    • 1 hour after delivery of the placenta
  48. Fetal Head Molding
    • Molding of the baby's head bones during passage through the birth canal
    • By the 3rd day of life the bones return to their normal position
    • The baby's head is not 1 piece
  49. How Does a Newborn Receive Oxygen?
    • Fluid's absorbed into lung tissues & replaced by air
    • Umbilical arteries are clamped to increase blood pressure
    • Blood vessels in the lungs relax
  50. Posterior Presentation
    • Abnormal presentation
    • Baby is facing toward the bellybutton
  51. Face Presentation
    • Abnormal presentation
    • Baby's headis leaned back, their face is first through the cervix (not their head)
  52. Blow Presentation
    • Abnormal presentation
    • Baby's head is leaned forward, the top of their head through the cervix instead of their forehead
  53. Transverse Presentation
    • Abnormal presentation
    • Baby's laying on their back
  54. Shoulder Presentation
    • Abnormal presentation
    • Baby's shoulder is facing the cervix
  55. Breech Presentation
    • Abnormal presentation
    • Baby is not turned over yet (leg or buttocks is facing the cervix)
    • Variations: Complete, Frank, Incomplete, and Footling
  56. APGAR Score
    • Highest score is a 10
    • Healthy babies should have at least a 7
    • Typically get 2
    • Score of 0-2 for each of the following categories
    • Activity (muscle tone)
    • Pulse (heart rate)
    • Grimace (reflex irritability)
    • Appearance (colour)
    • Respiration
  57. Premature Birth
    • Under 37 weeks gestation
    • 1 of every 8 US babies
    • 24 weeks gestation = 50% survival rate
  58. States of Infant Arousal
    • Quiet sleep
    • Active sleep (light or REM sleep)
    • Drowsy (transition to sleep)
    • Quiet alert (fully awake, not really moving around)
    • Active alert (fully awake, moving around
    • Crying
  59. Significance of Infant Cry
    • Signal Need (maintain proximitiy to & elicit care from caregivers)
    • Signal Vigor (avoid the withdrawal of parent care)
  60. Oculomotor Skills
    • Movements eyes make to bring objects into focused
    • Not fully developed at birth
  61. Asynchrony
    Different body regions grow faster at different times because of concentrated energy for growth in areas most needed for survival
  62. Cortex
    • Perception
    • Movement
    • Language
    • Cognition
  63. Limbic System
    • Attention
    • Memory
    • Emotion
  64. Brain Stem
    Autonomic activities (like breathing)
  65. Neurons
    • Cells that code & transmit information in the form of electro-chemical currents (action potential)
    • Parts: Cell body, Axon/Axon terminal (sending signals), Dendrites (receiving signals)
  66. Prenatal Brain Development
    • Mitosis (cell division, generation of new cells)
    • Axon lengthening
    • Cell migration (to form different regions of the brain)
    • Myelination (insulation of the axons)
    • Specialization of cells & regions of cells
  67. Postnatal Brain Development
    • Synaptogensis (rapid increase in synaptic connections)
    • Pruning of unused connections
  68. Two Types of Neural Development
    • Experience Expectant (critical for survival; reflexes, cry response to pain)
    • Experience Dependent (not critical for survival; singing Lady Gaga when it comes on the radio)
  69. Classical Conditioning
    • Learning by association; the linking together of a stimulus & response occuring at the same time
    • Bright light & sound example
  70. Operant Conditioning
    • A particular response will occur following a reinforcement of that response
    • Reinforcement/punishment
  71. Neonatal Imitation
    • Inborn ability
    • Copy our actions
    • Sticking out their tongue example
  72. Haptic Memory
    Memory about the texture of a surface (though the mouth or touch)
  73. Faces
    • Can differentiate mom's face from unfamiliar ones
    • Prefer faces of own ethnicity
    • Prefer attractive faces
    • Also applies to animals
  74. Patterns
    Can distinguish whole pattern, not simple dots or lines
  75. Cross-Modal Perception
    Integrate information from 2+ different senses
  76. Affect Matching
    • Mirroring
    • Baby learns to match faces and feelings
  77. Motherese
    • Infant-directed speech
    • High pitched, slowed down, simplification, etc.
  78. Motionese
    • Infant-directed action
    • Closer proximity, Greater enthusiasm, Larger range of motion, Greater repetitiveness, Higher interactiveness, Greater simplification
  79. Matching
    Matching emotions through body & movement
  80. Attunement
    Attune to baby's rhythm
  81. Turn-taking
    • Talk as though we're having a conversation
    • Proto-conversation- taking turns (talk, pause, talk, pause, etc.)
  82. Ecological Self
    • Recognizes self as separate and whole individual
    • Know boundaries between them & someone else
  83. Self-Agency
    The sense that one can generate actions & expect consequences
  84. Self-Coherent
    The sense of being a whole physical entity with boundaries & limits
  85. Self-Affectivity
    The sense of having inner emotional feelings that go with specific experiences
  86. Self-History
    The sense of having a past & going through changes
  87. SIDS: Why?
    • External stressors
    • Vulnerable infant
    • Critical development period

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview