26 respiratory system drugs and antihistamines

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26 respiratory system drugs and antihistamines
2011-03-06 06:56:58

chapter 26 respiratory system drugs and antihistamines
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  1. what are the therapeutic measures for respiratory distress?
    • oxygen
    • respiratory stimulants
    • bronchodilators
    • corticosteroids
    • mucolytics
    • expectorants
    • antitussives
  2. ______ is used therapeutically for hypoxia and to decrease the workload of the heart and respiratory system, especially during distress
  3. how can oxygen be administered?
    endotracheal intubation, nasal cannula, various masks, tents, and hoods
  4. what are some SIDE EFFECTS of oxygen delivered too high or too long
    • hypoventilation
    • confusion
    • blindness in infants
    • changes in the alveoli of the lungs
  5. oxygen CAUTIONS include
    • COPD patients
    • fire
    • and electrical equipment
  6. true or false

    oxygen is flammable
  7. oxygen supports __________
  8. caffeine citrate and theophylline are examples of _________
    respiratory stimulants
  9. calcium citrate is a type of treatment for
    neonatal apnea
  10. Theophylline administration routes
    IV and orally
  11. _______ is administered to stimulate respiration in infants and patients with cheyne-stokes respiration
  12. _______ act by relaxing the smooth muscles of the bronchial tree, thereby relieving bronchospasms and decreasing the work of breathing
  13. classifications of bronchodilators
    • sympathomimetic
    • anticholinergic
    • xanthine derivatives
  14. bronchodilators are used in treatment in
    • asthma
    • and many forms of COPD
  15. how do adrenergics work on the smooth muscles of the lungs
    it relaxes
  16. epinephrine has been largely replaced as a bronchodilator in the treatment of asthma by ________ medication
  17. this option of an inhaler is helpful for patients who are unable to coordinate inspiration with actuation of a conventional MDI
    breath actuated inhalers
  18. _______ creates an aerosol of mist of a drug solution that can be inhaled into the lungs through a mouthpiece or mask usually created with compressed air or oxygen gas
    small volume nebulizers
  19. an example of a common short acting beta2 agonist drug
  20. _______ should be available for rescue treatment for acute attacks
  21. ______ block the PNS and can cause drying of pulmonary secretions
  22. ______ should be encouraged to avoid mucus plugging
  23. a distinct trait for anticholinergics would be
    a metallic taste
  24. spiriva and atrovent are administered daily in a
    dry powdered inhaler
  25. patients taking bronchodilators should be instructed regarding:

    a.) following written package directions for
    technique and use
    b.) drink adequate fluids to prevent mucous plugging
    c.) watch for cardiac irregularities
    d.) all of the above
    D. all of the above
  26. synthetic ______ are used to relieve inflammation, reduce swelling, and suppress symptoms in acute and chronic reactive airway disease.
  27. how are corticosteroids administered
    oral and injectable forms
  28. true or false

    inhaled corticosteroids have a greater systemic effect than oral or injectable administration
    • false
    • inhaled corticosteroids have a less effect
  29. ______ corticosteroids are increasingly considered first line of therapy for most noninfectious types of rhinitis
    nasal (think rhinitis = nose)
  30. some side effects of inhaled corticosteroids
    • throat irritation
    • dry mouth
    • hoarseness
    • coughing
    • oral fungal infections
    • increased susceptibility to pneumonia
  31. viral, bacterial, or fungal infections
    hypertension or CHF
    hypothyroidism or cirrhosis
    renal failure

    are all contraindications for ________
  32. term for measures that prevent the spread of disease
  33. an action of two drugs in which one decreases or cancels out the effect of the other
  34. _______ _________ _________ primarily help to control the inflammatory process of asthma caused by leukotriene production, thus helping to prevent asthma symptoms and acute attacks
    leukotriene receptor antagonists
  35. a distinct side effect for singular would be
    respiratory infections and fever
  36. a prophylactic for asthma that was one of the first mast cell stabilizer
  37. these are side effects of _______

    throat irritation
    nose burning, stinging, sneezing
  38. when bronchodilators and corticosteroids are administered at the same time which should be given first
  39. ________ decrease the hypersecretion of and liquify pulmonary secretions
  40. an example of a mucolytic
  41. acetylcysteine =
  42. _______ increase secretions, reduce viscosity, and help to expel sputum, but offer no clinical benefit and is not recommended for patients with obstructive lung disease
  43. an example of an expectorant
    guaifenesin (robitussin, mucinex)
  44. guaifenesin =
  45. normal fluid volume
  46. side effects of expectorants
    • NVD
    • runny nose
    • drowsiness, dizziness, headache
  47. contraindications with expectorants
    • persistant chronic cough
    • CVD
    • hypertension
    • pregnancy
    • some asthmatics
  48. _____ was of great concern for reports of severe adverse reactions in the death of infants and children
    OTC cough and cold preparations
  49. _______ medications are used to prevent coughing in patients not requiring a productive cough
  50. a reflex mechanism that helps eliminate secretions from the respiratory tract
  51. an example of a narcotic antitussive that is widely used as a cough suppressant due to its reduce incidence of side effects
  52. a narcotic cough suppressant that is slightly compared to codeine, but with a more sedating action
  53. _____ are used more frequently as an antitussive because they do not depress respirations, do not cause dependance, and have few side effects
    nonnarcotic antitussives
  54. a first generation antihistamine that is also used as a cough suppressant
    Diphenhydramine (benadryl)
  55. true or false

    combination formulations such as combining an antitussive with expectorant or decongestant etc. should be used regardless if the symptom is present

    combinations should only be used if the corresponding symptom is present
  56. side effects of antitussives
    • respiratory depression
    • constipation
    • urinary depression
    • sedation
    • dizziness
    • nausea
    • vomiting
  57. patients with URI should not use cough suppressants because of their limited efficacy. what could they use instead?
    a first generation antihistamine and a decongestant to treat cough
  58. ______ are used to treat the symptoms of allergies
  59. true or false

    antihistamines are curatives

    they only provide symptomatic relief of allergic symptoms
  60. patients taking first generation antihistamines should be instructed to:
    • -NOT use antihist. to sedate children
    • -avoid prolonged use
    • -no self medicating, consult dr. first
    • -caution operating machinery bc of sedative effect
    • -no alcohol
  61. 2nd generation antihistamine examples
    • allegra (fexofenadine)
    • claritin (loratidine)
  62. if you want a less sedative effect for an antihistamine what type should be prescribed?
    a 2nd generation antihistamine
  63. true or false

    2nd generation antihistamines are not effective for cough treatment
  64. 2nd generation antirust side effects
    • headache, dizziness, fatigue, drowsiness
    • dry mouth, pharyngitis
  65. which popular OTC drug was the primary target to be banned by the combat methamphetamine act in 2006
  66. _______ are drugs that constrict blood vessels in the respiratory tract, resulting in shrinkage of swollen mucous membranes and helping to open nasal airway passages
  67. two common examples of adrenergic decongestants
    • Pseudoephedrine (sudafed)
    • phenylephrine (neo-synephrine)
  68. these are side effects of __________

    anxiety, nervousness, tremors, seizures
    palpitations, hypertension, headache, cerebral hemorrhage, reduced cardiac and renal output, burning, stinging, sneezing, and dryness with nasal preparations
  69. patients taking decongestants should be instructed to:
    • use only for a few days to avoid rebound congestion
    • avoid when cardiac, thyroid, or diabetes are present
    • discontinue with side effects
  70. the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the united states
    cigarette smoking
  71. which is more effective when quitting smoking? quitting cold turkey or using smoking cessation medication.
    use a smoking cessation medication ROXAN and IMELDA ; )
  72. what do smoking cessation aids do for the body?
    lower the level of nicotine in the body
  73. ______ is an oral antidepressant that is also prescribed as a smoking cessation aid, and is also marketed as zyban
    wellbutrin (bupropion)
  74. side effects for smoking aids
    • mechanical problems
    • cardiac irritability
    • lightheadedness, heartburn, mouth and throat irritation
  75. cautions for smoking aids
    • overdosage
    • overdependance
    • dental problems
  76. _______ is a prescription only partial nicotine receptor agonist antagonist given orally and indicated for adults as an aid in smoking cessation