S1M2 Intro to Neoplasia

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S1M2 Intro to Neoplasia
2011-03-02 16:38:54
S1M2 Intro Neoplasia

S1M2 Intro to Neoplasia
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  1. What is neoplasia? Characteristics?
    PROCESS of uncontrolled growth caused by the accumulation of cells due proliferation or evasion of apoptosis (so too much growth or too little breakdown)
  2. What is a Neoplasm/Tumor?
    • It is the actual growth, or mass of tissue caused by too much growth.
    • Neoplasm persists in the same excessive manner even after the stimuli that caused the changed is ceased.
  3. What are benign tumors? What are some features?
    • Neoplasms that grow slowly without invasion or metastasis.
    • Usally well-circumscribed/ defined with a capsule
    • Easily removed with surgery.
  4. What is dysplasia?
    • A pre-invasive cell proliferation.
    • Cytological features look like malignancy
  5. What is a malignant neoplasm?
    • A neoplasm that grows rapidly, invades and metastasizes.
    • Poorly circumscribed, irregular growth (no capsule)
    • Can be treated successfully or can cause death :(
  6. **Test Question: A malignant tumor has the capacity to do what?
    • Invade and metastasize! Don't forget this.
    • Malignant cells invade neighoring tissues, blood vessels, and metasize to different sites.
  7. Benign cells grow how?
    locally and do NOT invade or metastasize.
  8. What are the two parts of a neoplasm (abnormal growth)?

    • 1.)Parenchyma: the actually tumor comprised of clonal neoplastic cells.
    • &
    • Parenchyma determines the biological behavior.
    • 2.) Stroma: the supporting tissue. CT, blood vessels, macrophages, lymphocytes.
    • Stoma determings the growth and evolution of the tumor.
  9. If the stroma of a neoplasm is scant how does the tumor seem?
    Soft and Fleshy!
  10. What is a malignancy?
    Think Cancer!
  11. Epithelial tissue: Benign Neoplasm is named with what suffix?

    ex: adenoma, papilloma
  12. Epithelial tissue: Malignant Neoplasm is named with what suffix?
  13. Mesenchymal Tissue?
    mesoderm that forms CT, blood, bone, muscle (review)
  14. Mesenchymal tissue: Benign neoplasm named with what suffix?
    -oma (same as epithelial neoplasm)
  15. Mesenchymal tissue: Malignant neoplasm named with what suffix?

    vs epithelial malignant neoplasm -carcinoma
  16. What is an Adenoma?
    A benign epithelial tumor of gladular origin**

    KNOW this, Dr. A mentioned it several times. Look at the -oma suffix!
  17. Squamous cell papilloma?
    A benign epithelial tumor. Papillo indicates it has projections.
  18. What is a Hydratidiform mole (vesicular mole) *important exception in naming!
    A benign tumor of the placental epithelium.

    KNOW. Dr. A wasted an entire slide on this
  19. What is a benign tumor of melanocytes called? This is an important exception your should know.
    NEVUS (moles) * know this. Dr. A wasted an entire slide on this.
  20. What is a malignant melanoma?
    A malignant tumor (cancer) of melanocytes.
  21. What is an Adenoma?
    A tumor forming glands or orginating from glands.

    Adenoma? think GLANDULAR origin!
  22. What is a hepatic adenoma?
    A tumor of the liver or that originates in the liver (of glandular origin due to the adenoma)
  23. The gross appearance of a tumor can modify nomenclature--what are a few examples?
    • Cystadenoma -cavity appearance
    • Polyp- club like projection or hollow with viscous
    • Papilloma- finger like projections
  24. What is a Papilloma?
    A tumor with finger like projections
  25. What is a cystadenoma?
    Tumor having a cavitary appearance.
  26. What is a cystadenoma?
    It is an adenoma (from glad) with cavities or cysts.
  27. Three types of cystadenomas?
    1) Serous Cystadenoma: filled with serous fluid in cavity

    2.)Mucinous Cystadenoma: filled with mucinous fluid in cavity

    3.) Papillary Cystadenoma: Cystadenoma with papillary or finger like projections protuding into cystic spaces.
  28. What is a Serous Cystadenoma?
    Break it down: Serous (filled with serous fluid) cyst(cavity) and adenoma(bening gland tumor)

  29. What is a Sessile polyp?
    Polyp: means club-like projection

    Sessile polyp: means a club-like projection attached to mucosa without a distinct stalk.
  30. What is a pedunclated or stalked polyp?
    Polyp: means club-like projection

    pedunclated or stalked polyp means the adenoma projects into the lumen and is attached to the mucosa by a distinct stalk. (sessile polyp has no distinct stalk)
  31. Adenomatous polyp?
    club-shaped (polyp), arising from glands or forming glands (adenoma)
  32. Where are polyps most commonly found?
    the COLON
  33. What is a Papilloma?
    A benign epithelial tumor from the surface lining composed of finger-like projections.
  34. What is a papilloma of the urinary bladder?
    Has finger-like projections from epithelial surfaces with a branching pattern, made of squamous, transitional or ductal epithelium.

    *remember the bladder is made of transitional epithelium.
  35. What is a Fibroma?
    A benign tumor of fibrous tissue of mesenchymal origin.
  36. What is a Fibro-sacroma?
    A malignant tumor of fibrous tissue of mesenchymal origin.
  37. **Test question: Exception!
    What is benign tumor of the adipose tissue? What about its malignant counterpart?

    LIPO-SARCOMA (malignant)

    "Think of Liposuction. LIPO=FAT)"
  38. ** What is a benign tumor of skeletal muscle?
    EXCEPTION! pay attention!
  39. What is a malignant tumor of skeletal muscle? **EXCEPTION!
    • Rhabdomy-sarcoma
  40. **What is a benign tumor of the smooth muscle?

    Don't forget this! Dr. A
    wasted an entire slide on it!
  41. What is the most common smooth muscle benign tumor for females?

    Occurs in the

  42. What is a malignant neoplasm of the smooth muscle of the uterus?

    • has no boundaries, it's bigger than a leiomyoma and it looks like it is infiltrating.
  43. What is a Hemangioma?
    benign endothelial tumor (blood vessels)
  44. What is an Angiosarcoma?
    malignant blood vessel tumor
  45. ***Exception: This may be on the exam!
    What is mesothelioma?
    How does a pt. with metothelioma present?
    • -Malignant tumor of the mesothelial lining of the pleural cavity (possibly from asbestos exposure)
    • -Pt. presents with progressive dyspnea for several years
    • Tumor is thick.
  46. Sarcoma indicates what?
    malignant tumor of mesenchymal origin
  47. Carcinoma indicates a benign tumor of epithelial origin
  48. Leukemia is what?
    A malignant neoplasm of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Tumor cells spread to peripheral blood.
  49. What is a lymphoma?
    A malignant tumor of the lymphoid tissue--presents as a discrete tissue mass (like englarged lymph nodes)
  50. Meningioma?
    A benign tumor of the meninges.
  51. Invasive meningioma?
    malignant tumor of brain coverings
  52. Sarcomas are typically more or less common that carcinomas?
    • Sarcomas remember are of mesenchymal origin (blood, bones, muscles, CT)
    • They are less common than carcinomas
    • Their prognosis is poor (carcinomas better)
    • Usually presents distant metasis earlier than carcinomas
  53. Adeno-carcinoma
    Glandular malignant tumor (epithelial origin)

    *glandular pattern!
  54. Squamous cell carcinoma
    Malignant epithelial tumor (produces recognizable squamous cells from the epithelium!)
  55. Transitional cell carcinoma
    Malignant Epithelial tumor originating from epithelium in the urinary system
  56. Basal cell carcinoma
    malignant epithelial tumor orginating from basal cells of skin
  57. Chorio-carcinoma
    malignant epithelial tumor of placental origin
  58. What are some tumors that are named with -oma (indicating they're benign) and are actually malignant tumors?
    • -Melanoma
    • -Lymphoma
    • -Seminoma (testis)
    • -Hepatoma
    • -Astrocytoma (brain, astrocytes)
  59. Non-Neoplastic lesions with the suffix -oma?
    • Granuloma
    • Hematoma
    • Hamartoma
    • Choristoma
  60. What is a Seminoma? ****KNOW
    • MALIGNANT (BAD) testicular tumor
    • named with -oma but actually a malignant tumor
    • Origin: germ cells in testicular epithelium
    • MOST COMMON: malignant testicular tumor.

    OUCH. low blow!
  61. What is Melanoma?****KNOW
    named -oma but actually is a malignant tumor originating from melanocyte (epithelial origin)

  62. If a tumor is composed of more than one cell type what is it called? (falls into two categories)
    • 1.) Mixed Tumor (single germ layer)
    • 2.)Teratoma (multiple germ layers)
  63. What is a mixed tumor? **
    Derived from the same germ cell origin---under a microscope they have 2 morphological patterns KNOW****
  64. Pleomorphic adenoma
    • Benign mixed tomor of salivary gland origin
  65. What is a teratoma (Dermoid cyst)?
    • It is a tumor of the ovary or testes and is the most common germ cell tumor (has HAIR and TEETH IN IT)

  66. What does a Teratoma typically contain in it?
    Found in ovary or testes, commonly has teeth and bones in it (visible on x ray) (sometimes hair too)
  67. What is a Mature cystic teratoma?
    A benign tumor of the totipotent cells (in gonads)
  68. What is an immature teratoma? or Terato-carcinoma?
    A malignant tumor of totipotent cells (in gonads)
  69. What is a teratoma?
    • Dermoid Cyst of ovary or testes
    • Most common germ cell tumor
    • Commonly have teeth and bone in them
  70. What is a Choristoma?
    • Ectopic rest of normal tissue---
    • Basically normal tissue in a foreign location
    • ex: adrenal cells under the kidney capsule or pancreatic tissue in mucosa of small intestine
  71. What is a Hamartoma?*** KNOW.
    A non-neoplastic tumor-like lesion with disorganized haphazard growth of tissues normally found at a given site.

    • Ex: Pulmonary hamartoma (jumbled cartilage, bronchial epithelium and connective tissues)
    • Hyperplastic Polyp