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Carl Rogers six characteristics of a fully functioning person.
- A growing openness to experience
- An increasingly existential lifestyle – living each moment fully
- Increasing organismic trust – they trust their own judgment and their ability to choose behaviour that is appropriate for each moment.
- Freedom of choice-able to make a wider range of choices more fluently
- Reliability and constructiveness
- A rich full life
organismic valuing tendency
people tend to move towards goals that are more likely to be beneficial, both for themselves and others
study of set measurable distances between people as they interact
concept of readiness to change
the patient's level of willingless to change a behavior. It's important to consider b/c if you push a client too soon before he's ready to change, he may discontinue therapy all together.
What are the stages of the readiness to change
- precontemplation- not considering change
- contemplation - thinking but still not considering change
- preparation - acknowledges need for change-develop plan
- action - 3-6mos. Just made change. May resist tx early on
- maintenance - continue committement to change to sustain new behavior.
- relapse - begins old behavior
What are the four basic spectrums you need to
consider as you conceptualize a patient’s problems?
in relation to how they react to stress when dealing with the following
Inner Circle- people you love, family
- 1st circle - friends
- 2nd circle - work/school
- 3rd circle - external beliefs
What are deficiency needs?
contained in the four layers of the Maslow's Hierachy of needs Pyramid: esteem , friendship and love, security, and physical needs. The most basic level of needs must be met before meeting the next level of needs.
Describe the interaction between therapist and
the patient from the initial meeting in the lobby to the conclusion of the initial interview. Pay attention to the description of proxemics, office set up, and informed consent.
Waiting Room: Greet client, introduce yourself, make eye contact but don't shake hands. Escort patient to office from waiting room by either walking side by side patient or behind to observe behavior of patient (gait, ability to follow directions).
Office: Put place holder on therapist's chair to indicate which chair patient should sit in. Therapist should sit accross patient. Make sure that you're not sitting too close to patient(too close if both set of legs stretched out an touch each other's feet. Should be a desk, chairs, bookcase w/ gender neutral/ culturally diverse books, & artwork should be neutral, open to interpretation so that impression of strong opinion is not given out. Door should have window pane with blinds.
Informed consent Discuss limtis of confidentiality, length of therapy, payment, theoretic approach, cancellation/no show policy & after hours/emergency contact protocol/risks & benefits/cellphone use
Information: Get background info, referral question (what brings the patient in), family history, medical/developmental history, educational history, social (friends), spiritual & other factors, patient's treatment goal (pick 2, doable/specific/measurable/objective
- Carl Rogers - helps develop repetoire and establish therapuetic relationship
- 1. Unconditional Positive Regard (UPR) - accept patient, no judge
- 2. Empathy - understand & be sensitive to client's feelings
- 3. Authencity - stay real but maintain professionalism. opens up emotion
Carl Rogers. Essential in any therapuetic relationship. Job of therapist to understand and hear what the therapist is saying. Nonverbal cues also important as well as what is not said. Client experiences being attented to & know he was heard. Also helps the client to listen to himself, reflect & slow down.
Includes minimal encouragers, paraphrasing, perception checks, summaries,
Adler. Requires the student to make things right again and is cognitively connected to misbehavior. Makes person accountable for actions.
Students having to clean up their own messes, students who miss pep rallies because of tardiness,
- Universal skill used to demonstrate that
- therapist is listening and to clarify. Meaning, content, tone, feelingnare retained in the reflection and the therapist acts as a backboard. Rephrasing what the client just said, & mirrors what the client thinks, & feels. Allows client to be heard wi/o being judge. Allow patient to rehear what they just said & verafies that the therapist is listening. Allows client to correct any misconceptions
- Minimal Encourager: Universal skill used to encourage discussion without interrupting the client or changing focus. Examples include: okay, I
- see, keep going, continue, I’m understanding.”
- Nonverbal Encourager: Universal skill used to encourage discussion
- without interrupting. Therapist nonverbally encourages with posture, head nods, gestures.
Allows patient to know you're interested & want to know more. Helps the flow of communication
- on the part of the counselor refers to her / his ability to
- be completely genuine whatever the self of the moment. Realness.
- Universal skill; typically involves who, is, do,
- did, are, or does. Useful for getting specific information or highlighting information that therapist thinks might be useful to attend to at the moment.
How much info a therapist may reveal about himself and his feelings about the client.
- Universal skill; utilized to promote detailed
- discussion and to help client relate their story in some detail. Therapist asks question to get the client to discuss in detail. Usually involves how, why (be
- careful with Why questions), or what
- Universal skill; to insure that therapist hears
- client correctly. Like the paraphrase but really is restating the fact or clarifying what you think you heard as therapist. Therapist ask the client if
- what he/she heard was correct
Asking the Question:
- Individual Psychology; to bring to the surface
- client’s goals and objectives. Core question is “What would be different if…” Like the miracle question (later) but not as general – less abstract and more
- problem specific
- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; help client
- understand faulty assumption or beliefs. Therapist seeking out empirical information supporting belief.
- Individual or Family Therapy; Ask questions to
- understand relationships with immediate others and the impact/perspective of those folks on the situation.
- Brief therapy; CBT; what would it be like if a
- miracle occurred? Purpose is to allow client to notice how world would be different if things suddenly changed.
Universal Skill; to bring to surface important, specific information. A type of closed question. Typically elicits one-two word responses that you might follow-up with open question
- Universial skill; given to provide direction
- about how therapy works, what is routinely discussed, agenda for day’s activities, and therapeutic process. Important because it helps the client
- understand how therapy works and establishes therapy norms.
changing the meaning of a negative statment to a more positive one.
Reflection of Feeling:
- Universal skill utilized by therapist to show client that he/she is aware of feelings client is experiencing and to demonstrate empathy. Highlights client’s emotion words and may reflect them back using exact phrase
- or synonyms. “It sounds like you are really tired” “Sounds like you
- feel manipulated.”
Reflection of Meaning:
To demonstrate to client that you have heard deeper meaning of story. Core beliefs that guide client’s actions/principles. Adds new information to what the client has said. Example: “One of your beliefs is that if you do not get it done perfectly it should not be done at all.” or “It sounds like you believe that your friends frequently take advantage of you.”
- used to review exactly what has
- been said during the session and to review content. It is like the cliff notes version of the session to date. Therapist uses skill either to begin, end, or transition to review materials covered and to clarify as needed.
Carl Roger's fully functioning person/self actualization
- 1. aversion to facades
- 2. aversion to ought/shoulds
- 3. moves away from others' expectation;stops being a people pleaser
- 4. Accept who they are & what they're about. Not hard on self
- 5. Doesn't edit own history. Accepts that their history is what made them who they are today
- 6. Learn to trust yourself & your gut reaction