Human Geography

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Human Geography
2011-03-21 20:11:53

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  1. Principles of Location
    • Stay the same
    • Have certain criteria they use to select a factory
    • Maximize profit while using lower costs
    • Spatial organization
  2. Patterns of Economic Development
    • Principles of location
    • Economic interdependence
    • Cumulative history
  3. Geographical Path Dependence
    • Historical relationship between present day activities and past experiences of a place
    • Late starters vs early starters
  4. Industrial Location Theory
    • Use land to highest profit and utility
    • Maximize interaction at lowest cost
    • Classical economics, assumed rational economic actors
    • Large companies, all activities taking place on US soil
    • Firms seek point of least transport cost
    • Some materials are ubiquitous (everywhere)
    • Most materials are localized, and so must be transported
  5. Maximize interaction at lowest cost
    Maximize with consumers/markets/suppliers
  6. Classical economics, assumed rational economic actors
    • Every economic action is rationale
    • Maximize utilities, happiness
    • 100% are full of information
  7. Firms seek point of least transport cost
    • Firms activities happen in national boundaries
    • Transport cost a function of distance and weight
    • -Heavier things stay in close areas
    • -Lighter things are cheaper to ship
    • Material Index
  8. Material Index
    • Weight of localized material inputs Weight of finished product
    • If less than 1, firm locates near MARKET
    • If more than 1, firm locates near (HEAVIEST) RAW MATERIALS
  9. Some materials are ubiquitous (everywhere)
    • Sand, air, water
    • Don’t need to “transport” them
  10. Most materials are localized, and so must be transported
    A real factor for corporations
  11. Weight Gaining Industries
    • Products are breakable, perishable, or heavier than their inputs (raw materials)
    • High costs of land and labor in market regions, are tolerable because of advantage (cost savings) of market proximity
    • -Higher tolerance for cost
  12. Examples of Weight Gaining Industries
    • Bottling industries (weight gaining, using ubiquitous resource)
    • Auto assembly plants (weight gaining)
    • Dairy farms (perishability)
    • Petrochemicals
  13. Market Oriented Industries
    • Weight-gaining
    • Weight-losing, bulk industries
  14. Petrochemicals
    • Seek to use land to maximize profit and utility
    • Maximize interaction at lowest cost
    • Material inputs
    • Labor
    • Energy
    • Transportation
    • Government policies
  15. Material Inputs
    • Petroleum
    • Ethylene
    • Salt
    • Water
    • Other
  16. Labor
    • Skill
    • Cost
  17. Energy
    • Quantity
    • Cost
    • Combination of energy and minerals needed for economic development is unevenly distributed
  18. Transportation
    • Inputs (Raw materials)
    • Outputs (Access to markets)
  19. Transportation in New Orleans
    • Trains close to water
    • -Easier to move from one type to another
    • -Easier to get to water
  20. Government Policies
    • Tax incentives
    • Environmental regulations
    • Always intervening
  21. Government Policies in Louisiana
    Offer tax breaks to companies that want to move here
  22. Weight-Losing, Bulk Industries
    • Expensive transport of raw materials, so manufacturing occurs near the raw materials
    • Primary activities (or extractive industries) are material oriented
  23. Examples of Weight-Losing Industries
    • Copper and steel production
    • Timber mills
    • Furniture manufacture
    • Most agricultural activities (sugar)
  24. Labor Oriented Industries
    • Primary production concern is labor (quality or cost)
    • Require cheap unskilled labor
    • -Garment industry, retail
    • Require highly skilled professionals
    • -High tech firms
  25. Use land to highest profit and utility
    Maximize interaction at lowest cost
    Petrochemical Firms Seek to...
  26. Economic Interdependence
    • Backward and forward linkages
    • Ancillary activities
  27. Backward Linkages
    • Input
    • Relationship with supplier
    • Material flows from material suppliers to steel production plant
    • Flows of information flows back and forth from material suppliers to steel production plant
  28. Forward Linkages
    • Output
    • Relationship with company
    • Material flows from steel production plant to market
    • Flows of information flows back and forth from steel production plant to market
  29. Ancillary Services
    • Service providers
    • -Lawyers
    • -Consultants
    • -Advertising agencies
    • Subcontractors
    • -Maintenance firm
    • -Haulage firm
  30. A concentration of economic sector that drives the economy
    Agglomeration effects
    External economies
    Localization economies
    Regional Economic Cores Derive From...
  31. Agglomeration Effects
    • The proximity of functionally related activities
    • -Beneficial to a firm, closer to other firms
    • -Can do business more efficiently
  32. External Economies
    Circumstance beyond a firm’s organization (labor, markets, fixed capital, etc)
  33. Localization Economies
    • Clustering together at specific location- within 1 industry, forming basis for continuing growth
    • Reputation: Silicon Valley, LA, Detroit, Chemical Alley
  34. Processes reinforce uneven-ness (core periphery contrast)
    • Cumulative causation
    • Backwash effects
  35. Cumulative Causation
    • Initial local advantage tends to be reinforced by principles of agglomeration and localization
    • A spiral buildup of advantages that occurs in specific geographic settings as a result of the development of external economies, agglomeration effects, and localization economies
  36. Backwash Effects
    • Negative impacts on a region due to the economic growth of some other region
    • Can take many forms- brain drain, dumping site
    • Hope Scholarship- we don’t want students to leave the state
  37. Processes with Moderate Uneveness
    • Special effects
    • Import substitution
    • Agglomeration diseconomies
    • Deindustrialization
  38. Special Effects
    Positive effects on a region as a result of economic growth of another region
  39. Import Substitution
    • Previously imported goods are replaced by domestic goods and services
    • Government subsidizes production, protects through tariffs
    • Japan- textiles, autos electronics
  40. Agglomeration Diseconomies
    Negative economic effects of urbanization and local concentration of industry
  41. It is geographical uneven
    Patterns and processes
    What is single most important geographical feature of economic development?
  42. Productivity
    Purchasing power
    Basic conditions of life
    Economic Development is Measured in
  43. Gross Domestic Product
    Estimate of total value of all materials, foodstuffs, goods, and services produced by a country in a year
  44. Gross National Product
    GDP + income from abroad
  45. Distribution of known resources
    Changing technology systems
    Economic structure
    Growth of world-system of trade & politics
    Factors in Unevenness for Processes
  46. Dutch Guiana
    • Created a plantation economy (sugar, coffee, cocoa) with enslaved labor force from West Africa
    • Never invested heavily in this colony
    • -With end of slavery, plantations declined in productivity as labor costs rose
  47. Cocoa, coffee, and sugar
    Rice, bananas, and citrus fruits replaced
  48. ALCOA
    • America firm began mining bauxite and processing it
    • into alumina
    • During World War II, more than 75% of U.S. bauxite imports came from Dutch Guiana
    • Manufactured first pull-tab aluminum can
    • -Demand for aluminum soared
  49. Surinam
    Became an autonomous part of Kingdom of Netherlands
  50. Afobaka Dam
    • Completed across Suriname River to produce hydro electric power for alumina production
    • Impounds the 600-square-mile (1,550-square-km) W.J. van Blommestein Lake
    • -Largest impounded lake on the planet.
  51. Suriname
    • Has potential for tourism, boasting rainforests, abundant wildlife and colonial architecture in the capital
    • The sector is undeveloped, hampered by the inaccessibility of the interior and the lack of infrastructure
    • Depends heavily on mining and processing its declining reserves of bauxite and is vulnerable to falls in commodity prices
  52. Distribution of Known Resources
    Discovery of bauxite
  53. Changing Technology Systems
    • Enable: Ability to create alumina and aluminum from bauxite on industrial scale
    • Compel: WWI
    • Clusters of inter-related energy, transportation and production technologies that dominate economic activity for several decades at a time
    • Favor different regions at different times
    • Rewrite geography of economic development
  54. Economic Structure
    • Primary sector
    • Extraction of natural resources agriculture, mining, forestry, fishing
  55. Growth of World-System of Trade and Politics
    Peripheral country
  56. Per Capita
    A way to standardize economy
  57. Operation Gwamba
    Thousands of animals were moved to build a dam in Suriname
  58. Steam Age
    • 1790-1840
    • Water power, steam engines, cotton textiles, ironworking, river, canals, turnpikes
  59. Fall Line
    • The shift from the piedmont to the coastal plane
    • Creates waterfalls (creates energy)
    • Doesn't extend to West Virginia and Kentucky because of mountains
  60. Cotton and Iron
    What were big investments during the industrial revolution?
  61. Lowell, Massachusetts
    One of the first to use water as energy
  62. Railroad Systems
    • Started off by the HOMES because of the water
    • Used from Chicago to Great lakes to Eerie canal then to Europe
    • Trains carried a lot of grain from Chicago
  63. Transhipment
    Using more than one type of transportation
  64. Railroad Era
    • 1840-1890
    • Coal-powered steam engines, steel, machine tools, railroads, world shipping
  65. Focused around the areas where trains met water to transport
    Center of Density for Railroads
  66. Metal Works
    • 1890-1950
    • Opened up new places to go
    • Oil, plastics, heavy engineering, automobiles, aircraft, radio, telecommunications
  67. Aerospace Era
    • 1950-1990
    • Nuclear power, aerospace, petrochemicals, electronics, highways, air routes
  68. Louisiana, Texas, and New Jersey
    Biggest Petroleum Producers
  69. Millennium
    • 1990-Present
    • Solar, robotics, microelectronics, biotechnology, information technology
  70. Silicon Valley in 1950
    Was nothing but fields
  71. Cayman Islands in 1950
    • Rise of off-shore finance
    • Was nothing but poor islands
  72. Secondary Structure
    Manufacturing Process, transform, fabricate, assemble raw materials or reassemble, refinish, package manufactured goods
  73. Tertiary Structure
    Sale or exchange of goods & services
  74. Quaternary Structure
    • Handling and processing knowledge & information
    • Silicon Valley
    • Cayman Islands
  75. Growth of world-system of trade & politics
    Geographical divisions of labor national, regional or local economic specializations evolved with this
  76. Traditional Society
    • Limited technology
    • Static society
  77. Preconditions for Take-Off
    Commercial exploitation of agriculture and extractive industry
  78. Traditional Society to Preconditions for Take-Off
    Transition triggered by external influences, interests, or markets
  79. Take-Off
    Development of a manufacturing system
  80. Preconditions for Take-Off to Take-Off
    Installation of physical infrastructure (roads, railways, etc.) and emergence of social/political elite
  81. Drive to Maturity
    Development of wider industrial and commercial base
  82. Take-Off to Drive to Maturity
    Investment in manufacturing exceeds 10% of national income; development of modern, social, economic, and political institutions
  83. Drive to Maturity to High Mass Consumption
    Exploitation of comparative advantages in international trade
  84. Developmentalism
    Places and regions follow parallel development
  85. Ethnic Religions
    • Appeal primarily to one group living in one place or region
    • Judaism
    • Shaped by dispora
  86. Dispora
    The spatial diffusion of a religion that was just in one space
  87. Universalizing Religions
    Trade is used to seeking religion
  88. Migration and Religion
    May leave and never come back
  89. Empire and Religion
    Spreads right up to roman empire, but no farther
  90. Muhammad
    • A member of powerful Arab tribe Mecca a thriving mercantile city emerging from nomadic culture
    • Converts messages to the people
    • Went from mercantilism to nomadic
    • Found a “politically viable [and] spiritually illuminating” solution
  91. Quran
    • (Recitatations) came to Muhammad in pieces over 23 years
    • Word of God as relayed by Archangel Gabriel Masterpiece of Arab prose and poetry
  92. Islam
    • Surrender of entire being to Allah justice, equity and compassion
    • Submission to God's will
  93. Ummah
    Build socially just community orthopraxy over orthodoxy (practice over speculation)
  94. Islam
    • Submission to Allah's Will
    • Practice is personal – not mediated by priest
    • Imam devout leader - calls to prayer and sermons
  95. 5 Pillars of of Islam
    • Shahadah
    • Salah
    • Zakah
    • Sawm
    • Hajj
  96. Shahadah
    • Profession of faith
    • There is no god but God; Muhammad is the messenger of God
  97. Salah
    • Prayer 5 times a day
    • Facing Mecca
    • Simple, personal, communal
  98. Zakah
    • Religious tax
    • Enshrines social responsibility to community and less fortunate
  99. Sawm
    • Fast during Ramadan
    • Deeply personal worship “greater needs than bread”
  100. Hajj
    • Pilgrimage to Mecca
    • Peak of religious life
    • Kabah the focus of lifetime of prayer
    • Religious Pilgrimage
    • Long distances travelled likened it to migration in effects of cultural diffusion
  101. Cultural Diffusion of Hajj
    • Pilgrimages to Mecca from across growing Islamic world contributed significantly to spread of religious, culinary, and other cultural practices
    • Coffee was introduced to Yemen so people could prolong prayer at night
  102. Islams
    Coffe was spread by..
  103. Spread of Islam- Migration and Empire
    • Limited resources in Arabian desert
    • Could not steal from members of the ummah
    • As the ummah grew, ghazu conducted further afield
  104. Spread of Islam- Empire, Conversion, Migration
    • Succession of Islamic leaders dealt with expansion differently
    • Garrison towns, no mixing of populations, no conversion
    • Later desegregation, mixing, conversion
    • Increasingly hard to control expanding territory
  105. Abbasid Period
    Quran urges Muslims to acquire knowledge - one of highest religious activities
  106. Golden Age of Islam Knowledges
    • Science
    • Technology
    • Literature
    • History
    • Biography (of Prophet)
    • Mathematics
    • Astronomy
    • Chemistry
    • Hydraulics
    • Translations of Scriptures
  107. Seljuk Empire
    Seljuk Turks in Central Asia convert to Islam “unparalleled cross-fertilization of once isolated intellectual traditions”
  108. Golden Age of Ottoman Empire
    • Ottoman fleet a major Mediterranean naval power
    • Conquered Syria, Arabia, Egypt, Iraq
    • With control of Islam’s holy places sultan took title of Caliph, ruler of all Muslims
    • Controlled all Middle Eastern trade routes
    • Expanded into Europe
    • Built many mosques and public works in ancient cities of Islam
    • Spread out in all directions
  109. Fall of Ottoman Empire
    • Agrarian empires outgrew themselves
    • Confronted economic and military competition from modernizing Europe
    • Whole new context for decline
    • West penetrating Islamdom for centuries
    • -13th c. Venetian trading posts in Egypt, Syria, Lebanon
    • -1498 Vasco da Gama’s route around India undercut Mediterranean trade
  110. Europe's Move Beyond Agrarian Society
    • Scientific revolution led to greater control over environment
    • Mercantilism pointed outward for enrichment
    • Innovation in European core
    • Efficiency – labor – education – markets -governance Secularization & democracy increasingly important to modern state
  111. Sick Man of Europe
    • European search for raw materials, markets, military bases & colonies penetrated most of Ottoman Empire
    • Arab nationalism on the rise
    • -Europe entered power vacuum created by Empire’s decline 1869 Suez Canal
    • -1918 Palestine question
  112. Effects on Isladom
    • Intrusion of West raised deep religious questions
    • Quran promised that a society submissive to God’s will could not fail
    • Muslims faced constant challenge to build better world
    • Humiliation of ummah a political and religious catastrophe
  113. Monotheistic Common Narative
    Adam to Abraham to Sarah Isaac (Jesus) and Hagar Ishmail (Mohammed)
  114. Jeruselam
    The holy place for Christianity, Judaism, and Islam
  115. Dome of the Rock
    Built at site in Jerusalem at which Mohammed ascended in to heaven
  116. 4000 years ago
    2000 years ago
    1400 years ago
    • Judaism was founded..
    • Christianity...
    • Islam....
  117. Judaism
    Western wall (2nd temple)
  118. Christianity
    Stations of the cross
  119. Islam
    • Mecca
    • Medina
  120. Christian Church
    • Sanctified place of worship
    • Congregational worship an important religious practice
  121. Hindu Temple
    • Not for congregational worship
    • Shrines for particular gods
  122. Buddhist Temple
    • Not for congregational worship
    • Shrines for relics of Buddha’s life
  123. St. Gerard's Catholic Church
    • Congregational churches follow population growth
    • Built 1911 on growing East Side of city City booming with immigration German, Hungarian, Irish
    • 1000s thousands of American churches have closed in areas with declining populations
    • Major task of diocesan decision-making structure – which to close, what to do with closed churches
  124. Buffalo Economic Base
    • Railroad/ Great Lakes transhipment point Largest inland port
    • 2nd only to Chicago as a rail center Steel, automobile parts, aircraft production
    • 6th largest steel producer 8th largest manufacturing center
    • Industrial decline accompanied by population decline
    • Attempts to diversify regional economy include light manufacturing, high technology and service-sector
  125. Globalization
    Increasing interconnectedness of parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political and cultural change
  126. Types of Globalization
    • International agencies
    • Global communication networks
    • Standardized time
    • International law
    • Human rights and citizenship
    • Increase in proportion of transnational activities
  127. Rapid advances in Telecommunications
    Agents of globalization & cultural homogenization include
  128. Culture Imperialism
    • Homogeneity
    • Coca-Colonialism
    • McDomination vs. French Culture Imperialism
    • Disneyfication vs. French Culture Imperialism
  129. Disneyfication vs. French Culture Imperialism
    • EuroDisney
    • “degenerate utopia” “will deform generations of French children
    • French Minister of Culture calls for: “ a real crusade against...this financial and intellectual imperialism that no longer grabs territory...but grabs consciousness, ways of thinking, ways of living”
  130. Cultural Nationalism
    • Local distinctiveness
    • Resistance
  131. Language and Nationalism
    • French suppression of regional languages polyglot - barrier to democracy and egalitarianism
    • French protection of national/regional languages in face of EU
    • Hebrew as national language of Israel (1947)
    • 11 national languages of South Africa (1994)
  132. Toponyms
    Tools for studying the geography of language
  133. Toponyms
    Place names
  134. Language
    • Starts at family then branch then group
    • Communicating ideas or feelings by means of a conventionalized system of signs, gestures, marks, or articulate vocal sounds
  135. English Language
    • 2000 yrs ago – did not exist
    • 1500 yrs ago – Englisc
    • 400 yrs ago – native speech of 5-7 million
    • Today - 750 million speakers, 1⁄2 as mother tongue Huge vocabulary
  136. 3 Invasions and a Cultural Revolution
    How did such a dramatic change in the geography of English happen?
  137. Indo-Europeans
    • Sir William Jones theorized their existence with discovery of Sanskrit words
    • Location theorized through vocabulary
    • -Snow, beech, bee, wolf, winter, horse
    • -No word for sea (no where near a sea)
  138. Invasion 1 and English Language
    • AD 70- Julius Caesar Hadrian’s wall
    • AD 449- English arrived “on the point of a sword”
    • Jutes, Angles, Saxons defeated Britons
    • Words: Frisian ko, lam, goes, boat, dong, rein
    • -In kopke kofje
  139. Invasion 2 and English Language
    • AD 793- Viking invasions
    • Alfred the Great uses English to foster national identity as force against Vikings
    • Pidgin – ization along Danelaw
  140. Cultural Revolution and English Language
    • AD 597- St Augustine launches Christian conversion
    • Greek & Latin Abstract thought
    • -Angel, disciple, martyr, shrine
  141. Invasion 3 and English Language
    • 1066- Norman invaders defeat Saxons at Battle of Hastings
    • Linguistic apartheid
    • Latin – religion learning
    • French – social & cultural prestige
    • English – working people
  142. Hundred Years War
    Contributed to rise of English
  143. Lingua Franca
    • English became this with rise of British-Empire
    • A language of international communication & commerce, used over wide area where it is not mother tongue
  144. Pidgin Language
    • Grammar rules and small vocabulary of lingua franca, mixed with elements of own language
    • No native speakers – always spoken in addition to native tongue
  145. Dialects
    Variant forms with mutual comprehension
  146. Culture Examples
    • Religion
    • Language
    • Sports
    • Political styles
    • Built environment
    • Music
  147. Culture
    Shared set of meanings lived through material and symbolic practices of everyday life
  148. Ways to Study Culture
    • Regions
    • Landscape
    • Spatial diffusion
  149. Cultural Region
    • Area within which a particular cultural system prevails
    • A geographical unit based on characteristics and functions of culture
  150. The morphology of landscape
    • Humans mediate environment through creation of landscapes
    • Cultural geography became focused on cultural history of landscapes
    • Explain landscape morphology (shape and character)
    • -Domestication, cultivation, diffusion, hydraulics, fire ecology
    • Descriptive in orientation
    • Carl Sauer
  151. Marston's Definition of Cultural Landscape
    Landscape is “a comprehensive product of human action such that every landscape is a complex repository of society. It is a collection of evidence about our character and experience, our struggles and triumphs as humans
  152. Landscape, Culture, and Power
    • Dominant cultures
    • Alternative cultures
  153. Dominant Cultures
    Plays strongest role
  154. Alternative Cultures
    • Play roles as well
    • Includes:
    • Residual cultures
    • Emergent cultures
    • Excluded cultures
  155. Residual Cultures
    Historic cultures that have disappeared or are in the process of fading away
  156. Emergent Cultures
    Those that are just now appearing
  157. Excluded Cultures
    Those that are actively or passively excluded by the dominant culture
  158. Bamiyan, Afghanistan
    • High valley (over 8000 ft), bounded by Hindu Kush (N.) and Koh-i-Baba (S.)
    • Large Buddhist monasticcenter
  159. Kushan's Dominant Culture
    • 1st c A.D. - 10th c. A.D.- Prospered as middlemen between China, India and Rome
    • Culture fused alternative cultures: Tribal traditions from Central Asia Hellenistic artistic conventions Buddhist imagery and practices
    • Bamiyan a major Buddhist monastery
    • Buddhas created in 3rd & 5th c. In western idiom: “provincial Roman” (residual culture)
  160. New Dominant Culture in Kushan
    970 A.D.- Ghazni rulers based to the south impose Islam
  161. Excluded Culture in Kushan
    • Buddhist statues tolerated by leadership
    • 1221 A.D. Valley destroyed by Ghengis Khan
    • Statues partially destroyed
  162. Taliban
    • As dominant culture, re-shape
    • landscape once again:
    • Buddhas destroyed by them in 2001
  163. 3 Reasons for Taliban Takeover
    • Long tradition of Muslim intolerance for Buddhism to uphold
    • Bamiyan a base for Northern Alliance
    • Taliban’s request for humanitarian aid refused because of Bin Laden
  164. UNESCO
    • 1992 – began listing Cultural Landscapes as World Heritage Sites
    • Illustrative of the evolution of human society and settlement over time, under the influence of the physical constraints and/or opportunities presented by their natural environment and of successive social, economic and cultural forces, both external and internal
  165. Cultural Diffusion
    • With rapid developments in technology of communication or warfare
    • Where an expansionist society comes in contact markedly less advanced societies (technologically)
    • E.g. Colonialism a major source of cultural diffusion
  166. Basic Geographic Issues
    • Fossil fuels and other natural resources and mediating technologies
    • -Supply is finite (for many)
    • -Supply is unevenly distributed across globe
    • -Consumption is unevenly distributed across globe
    • -Consumption is unevenly regulated across globe
  167. Climate Change
    A change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g. using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically for decades or longer. It refers to any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity
  168. Global Warming
    • Average temperature rose 1 C in 20th C
    • Projected to rise 5 C in 21st C
  169. Greenhouse Effect
    • Increased presence of gases within atmosphere prevent heat from escaping
    • Gases produced:
    • Increase in fossil fuels Use of inert gases for industrial use (e.g. fluorocarbons)
    • Decrease in forests that absorb CO2
    • 2010 stop carbon emissions
  170. Effects of Greenhouse Gases
    • Wet places wetter/Dry places dryer
    • Some places may get cooler while rest of world gets warmer
    • Rise in sea level
  171. Impacts of Rise in Sea Level
    • Caused by the melting ice caps
    • Flooding in coastal zones
    • Change in pattern of currents
    • -Gulf coast is warm and Europe is cold
    • Would flip
    • Change in fishery conditions
    • Saltwater and freshwater intrusion
  172. Percent of Populations
    • In US, 673 coastal counties of lower 48
    • -17 % land area
    • -53% population
    • 14 of 20 largest cities on coast
    • 17 of 20 fastest growing cities on coast
  173. Migration
    Move beyond the same political jurisdiction, involving a change of residence- either as emigration or immigration
  174. Precautionary Principle
    Environmental management rule that if a threat of serious or irreversible damage to the environment or human health exists, a lack of full scientific knowledge about the situation should not be allowed to delay containment or remedial steps if the balance of potential costs and benefits justifies enacting them. In other words, "prevention is better than cure"
  175. Kyoto Protocol
    • International agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
    • Sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing GHG emissions by an average of five % against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012
  176. Peak Oil
    Refers to the point of maximum production of oil, after which oil supplies are expected to decline
  177. Shape of Peak Oil Curve Varies...
    • Contrary attitudes toward future ambiguity
    • Methodology
    • Based on models
    • Based on data
  178. Hubbert
    • Bell shaped distribution
    • Production would peak at approximately the half point of supply
    • Peak would be reached in the 1970s
  179. 1971
    Government announced that “US was pumping oil at full tilt and there was no additional capacity that could be brought on stream to counteract rising prices”
  180. Implications for the US for Peak Oil
    • Changed the US’s relationship with the rest of the world
    • Became a net importer of oil
    • #1 most traded commodity
    • -Price fluctuations are felt the world over
  181. Iraq's Invasion of Kuwait
    Saddam Hussein wanted a port
  182. Libyan Domestic Politics
    • Possibility of ore regional unrest and regime change
    • May be more and more unrest
  183. Geopolitics
    • U.S. became more involved in stabilizing key regimes
    • State’s power to control space o territory and shape the foreign policy of individual states and international political relations
  184. Libya's Output Cut in Half Concerns
    • Supply disruption/price hike
    • Inflation
    • Slow recovery from recession
    • BUT: Government stockpiles developed since 1970s create buffers
    • -Saudia Arabia has spare capacity
  185. Could Demand of Oil be Dramatically Cut?
    Technologically- hydrogen or electric powered cars Politically- regulation in re climate change
  186. Tar sands in Alberta
    Heavy oils in Orinoco Basin
    Would require intensification of oil production
    Higher prices would justify cost of less efficient extraction
    Non-Conventional Sources could turn Peak into Plateau
  187. Market saturation
    Improved efficiency
    Fuel switching (ethanol, biodiesel)
    Regulation of GHG emissions
    Demand for oil falling since 2005 in OECD economies
  188. Responses to Specter of Peak Oil
    • Geopolitics
    • -Intervene in affairs of major oil producers
    • -Prioritize/stabilize “choke points”
    • -Form regional blocs to protect sources
    • Re-localization of economies
    • -Firm behavior
    • --Minimize transport costs
    • --Local/regional agglomeration
    • Eco-localization
    • -Develop regional economic concentrations
    • -Lower food miles
    • -Lower dependence on fossil fuels
  189. Columbian Exchange
    Interaction between the Old World originating with the voyages of Columbus, and the New World
  190. Conservation
    The view that natural resources should be used wisely and that society's effects on the natural world should represent stewardship and not exploitation
  191. Cultural Ecology
    Study of the relationship between a cultural group and its natural environment
  192. Deforestation
    The removal of trees from a forested area without adequate replanting
  193. Demographic Colapse
    Phenomenon of near genocide of native populations
  194. Desertification
    The degradation of land cover and damage to the soil and water in grass lands and arid and semiarid lands
  195. Ecological Imperialism
    Introduction of exotic plants and animals into new ecosystems
  196. Ecosystem
    Community of different species interacting with each other and with the larger physical environment that surrounds it
  197. Environmental Justice
    Movement reflecting a growing political consciousness, largely among the world's poor, that their immediate environs are far more toxic than those in wealthier neighborhoods
  198. Global Change
    Combination of political, economic, social, historical, and environmental problems at the world scale
  199. Paleolithic Period
    Period when chipped-stone tools first began to be used
  200. Political Ecology
    Approach to cultural geography that studies humans in their environment through the relationships of patterns of resource use to political and economic forces
  201. Preservation
    Approach to nature advocating that certain habitats, species, and resources should remain off-limits to human use, regardless of whether the use maintains or depletes the resource in question
  202. Romanticism
    Philosophy that emphasizes interdependence and relatedness between humans and nature
  203. Siltation
    Buildup of sand and clay in a natural or artificial waterway
  204. Transcendentalism
    Philosophy in which a person attempts to rise about nature and the limitations of the body to the point where the spirit dominates the flesh
  205. Virgin Soil Epidemics
    Conditions in which the population at risk has no natural immunity or previous exposure to the disease within the lifetime of the oldest member of the group
  206. Cultural Complex
    Combination of traits characteristic of a particular group
  207. Cultural Geography
    How space, place, and landscape shape culture at the same time that culture shapes space, place, and landscape
  208. Cultural Hearths
    The geographic origins or sources of innovations, ideas, or ideologies
  209. Cultural Landscape
    • A characteristic and tangible outcome of the complex interactions between a human group and a natural environment
    • Natural environment
    • Land form
    • Vegetation
    • Human group/activities
    • Human interventions & structures
  210. Cultural Nationalism
    An effort to protect regional and national cultures from the homogenizing impacts of globalization especially from the penetrating influence of U.S. culture
  211. Cultural System
    A collection of interacting elements that taken together shape a group's collective identity
  212. Cultural Trait
    A single aspect of the complex of routine practices that constitute a particular cultural group
  213. Ethnicity
    Socially created system of rules about who belongs and who does not belong to a particular group based upon actual or perceived commonality
  214. Folk Culture
    Traditional practices of small groups, especially rural people with a simple lifestyle who are seen to be homogeneous in their belief systems and practices
  215. Gender
    Social differences between men and women rather than the anatomical differences that are related to sex
  216. Genre de Vie
    Functionally organized way of life that is seen to be characteristic of a particular cultural group
  217. Historical Geography
    Geography of the past
  218. Islamism
    Anticolonial, anti-imperial, and generally anticore political movement
  219. Jihad
    Sacred struggle
  220. Kinship
    Relationship based on blood, marriage, or adoption
  221. Language Branch
    Collection of languages that possess a definite common origin buy have split into individual languages
  222. Language Family
    Collection of individual languages believed to be related in their prehistorical origin
  223. Language Group
    Collection of several individual languages that are part of a language brach, share a common origin, and have similar grammar and vocabulary
  224. Muslim
    Member of the Islamic community of believers whose duty is obedience and submission to God's will
  225. Popular Culture
    Practices and meaning systems produced by large groups of people whose norms and tastes are often heterogeneous and change frequently, often in response to commercial products
  226. Race
    Problematic classification of human beings based on skin color and other physical characteristics
  227. Racialization
    Practice of categorizing people according to race, or of imposing a racial character or context
  228. Religion
    Belief system and set of practices that recognize the existence of a power higher than humans
  229. Rites of Passage
    Ceremonial acts, customs, practices, or procedures that recognize key transitions in human life, such as birth, menstruation, and other markers of adulthood such as marriage
  230. Sexuality
    Set of practices and identities that a given culture considers related to each other and to those things it considers sexual acts and desires
  231. Tribe
    Form of social identity created by groups who share a set of ideas about collective loyalty and political action
  232. World Music
    Musical genre defined largely in response to the sudden increase of non-English-language recordings released in the UK and the US in the 1980s
  233. Landscape as Text
    Idea that landscapes can be read and written by groups and individuals
  234. Derelict Landscapes
    Landscapes that have experienced abandonment, misuse, disinvestment, or vandalism
  235. Territoriality
    Specific attachment of individuals or peoples to a specific location or territory
  236. Creative Destruction
    The withdrawal of investments from activities (and regions) that yield low rates of profit in order to reinvest in new activities (and new places)
  237. Debt Trap
    Syndrome of always having to borrow in order to fund development
  238. Deindustrialization
    A relative decline in industrial employment in core regions
  239. Elasticity of Demand
    Degree to which levels of demand for a product or service change in response to changes in price
  240. Export-Processing Zones
    Small areas within which especially favorable investment and trading conditions are created by governments in order to attract export-oriented industries
  241. Flexible Production Systems
    Ability of manufacturers to shift quickly and efficiently from one level of output to another, or from one product configuration to another
  242. Fordism
    Principles for mass production based on assembly-line techniques, scientific management, mass consumption based on higher wages, and sophisticated advertising techniques
  243. Foreign Direct Investment
    Total of overseas business investments made by private companies
  244. Gross National Income
    Similar to GDP, but also includes the value of income from abroad
  245. Growth Poles
    Economic activities that are deliberately organized around one or more high-growth industries
  246. Inflation
    Increased supply of printed currency that leads to higher prices and international financial differentials
  247. Infrastructure
    Underlying framework of services and amenities needed to facilitate productive activity
  248. Initial Advantage
    Critical importance of an early start in economic develoment
  249. International Division of Labor
    Specialization, by countries, in particular products for export
  250. Just-in-Time Production
    Manufacturing process in which daily or hourly delivery schedules of materials allow for minimal or zero inventories
  251. Neo-Fordism
    Economic principles in which the logic of mass production coupled with mass consumption is modified by the addition of more flexible production, distribution, and marketing skills
  252. Newly Industrializing Countries
    Countries formerly peripheral within the world system that have acquired a significant industrial sector, usually through foreign direct investment
  253. Offshore Financial Centers
    Islands or micro-states that have become a specialized node in the geography of worldwide financial flows
  254. Primary Activities
    Economic activities that are concerned directly with natural resources of any kind
  255. Spread Effects
    Positive impacts on a region of the economic growth of some other region
  256. Sustainable Development
    Vision of development that seeks a balance among economic growth, environmental impacts, and social equity
  257. Terms of Trade
    Ratio of prices at which exports and imports are exchanged
  258. Trading Blocs
    Groups of countries with formalized systems of trading agreements
  259. Transnational Corporations
    Companies with investments and activities that span international boundaries and with subsidiary companies, factories, offices, or facilities in several countries
  260. Vertical Disintergration
    Evolution form large, functionally integrated firms within a given industry toward networks of specialized firms, subcontractors, and suppliers
  261. Saccharin and Pregnancy
    • Can cross the placenta and remain in fetal tissue
    • Slow clearance
    • Can avoid by careful label reading
  262. Non-Nutritive Sweeteners and Pregnancy
    • No change observed
    • –Fertility
    • –Size
    • –Body weight
    • –Growth
    • Mortality
  263. Sweeteners and Obesity
    • High intakes of sweetened foods and beverages
    • Possible association with increasing amount or overweight and obesity
    • Surprisingly – little evidence supports a strong direct link of added sugars with obesity (when controlling for the increase in energy)
  264. Fructose and Obesity
    • May blunt circulating insulin and leptin levels
    • Less feeling of satiety
    • May result in increased energy intake
  265. Obesity and Beverages
    • “Liquids” with sucrose and fructose may promote weight gain because less satiating than solid foods
    • Remember that HFCS is about 40%to 60% fructose, so effects may be similar to sucrose (50% each of fructose and glucose)
  266. Obesity and Non-Nutritive Sweeteners
    • Originally developed for people with diabetes
    • Long term maintenance of body weight – need more data
    • Rodent studies aren’t always the same in humans
  267. In animals, they usually don’t promote weight gain (but sugars do because of calories!)
    Do nonnutritive sweeteners maintain a highly sweet food environment and promote obesity?
  268. Diabetes
    • Sugars don’t appear to cause it
    • Must control their TOTAL carbohydrate (not just their intake of “sugar”)
    • Nonnutritive polyols have lower glycemic response; safe for those with diabetes
    • Nonnutritive do not affect glycemic response, so OK to incorporate in the diet
  269. Behavior and Non-Nutritive Sweeteners
    • FDA mandates that behavioral tests be done for food additives, such as nonnutritive sweeteners
    • No behavioral effects seen with ADI levels of intake
  270. Aspartame and Behavior
    • Headaches
    • Seizure
    • Hyperactivity
    • Brain tumors