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He received Govt. contract to make 10,000 muskets and made them using machined standardized parts.
They are a husband and wife engineering team that further developed work measurement and efficiency methods
Lilian and Frank Gilbreth?
This engineer-physicist is credited with teaching Japan quality control methods in post WW2 and used statistics to analyzer processes
W. Edward Deming
What is a measure of process improvement and also represents output relative to input?
Standard of living in a country is improved by what factor?
By what rate has U.S. productivity improved since 1889?
2.5% per year
What are the productivity variables?
Who came up with the PDCA cycle?
What do the letters in PDCA stand for?
What percentage does each productivity variable represent?
- Capital: 0.4%
- Labor: 0.5%
- Management: 1.6%
Why is Service productivity typically lower than Manufacturing productivity?
- individually processed
- often intellectual
- difficult to automate
- difficult to quantify (measure)
What is management of an organization's production system?
What are main management activities?
- Leading (Directing)
What are key differences between goods and services?
- Goods vs. Services
- tangible | not tangible
- low customer interaction | high customer interaction
- can be inventoried | can't be inventoried
What are the branches that maintain an organization?
This encompasses and organization's purpose of being, provides boundaries and focus, and answers "How can we satisfy people's needs?"
What factors affect a company's mission statement?
- Philosophy and values
- Profitability & growth
- Public image
- Benefit to society
What are Porter's 3 competitive advantages?
- Low Cost
What are Miller & Roth's 6 strategies?
- Low Price
- After-sale service
- Broad product line
This refers to working within a system to get everything done all at once
What are the new trends in OM
- Pull production
- Global emphasis
What is this?
Graph of Product Life Cycle
What does SWOT stand for?
What goes into Strategy for a SWOT analysis?
- Internal Strengths
- Internal Weaknesses
- External Opportunities
- External Threats
What is GATT?
General Agreement on tariffs and trade
What is NAFTA?
North American Free Trade Agreement
This is an international treaty that helps promote world trade by lowering barriers to the free flow of goods across borders.
This is a free trade agreement between Canada, Mexico and the U.S.
What are the 7 reasons to globalize?
- Reduce costs
- Reduce risks
- Improve supply chain
- Provide better goods and services
- Attract new markets
- Learn to improve operations
- Attract and keep global talent
Name the four considerations for achieving global operations
- Global Product Design
- Global Process design and tech.
- Global factory location analysis
- Impact of culture and ethics
What does the reliability of a system depend on?
- Number of components
- Reliability of each
How do you calculate reliability of a system?
Multiply percent reliability of each
What increases a system's reliability?
Redundancy..making sure components have backups
How do you calculate the reliability of a system with a backup?
- Working reliability of the component plus reliability of the backup times the possibility of the component failing
- Rsystem backup= Rcomponent + Rbackup*(1-Rcomponent)
This means that a product is designed so that small variations in production do not affect adversely the product
In Group Technology, what are parts grouped into?
What is used to organize parts in Group Technology?
A coding system
The reliability of a system with a backup is also called a...
The reliability of a system without a backup is also called...
Do non-industry leaders come up with many new products?
Nope..only industry leaders come out with a lot of new products
What is competition based upon the speed at which you bring new products to the market?
Why is it important for companies to consistently come out with new products quickly?
It's important because then the ideas and technologies of the new products remain fresh and not outdated
What are the 3Cs?
What is involved in Concepts for 3Cs?
- Guiding premises behind company’s work
- Leading edge ideas
- Products and services design
What goes under Competence in 3Cs?
- Ability to do things at high standard
- Leading to new technologies
- Life-long learning
What goes under Connections in 3Cs?
- Close relationships with partners that can augment resources
- Close relations that can open doors
- Close relations that create wider horizons
What is JIT?
- This is Just-in-Time manufacturing
- Doing things so that they are finished right when the customer needs it
What is another name for JIT
What are the 6 zeros that you try to achieve with JIT
- Excess Lot Size
- Lead Times
What are Ohno's 7 deadly wastes?
- Over Processing
- Defective Products
What is WIP?
Work In Progress
What does JIT try to do with WIP?
Reduce it so that less projects are going on at a time and products get to the customer faster
What is lead time?
The amount of time it takes for something to happen (delivery, assembly, etc.)
What is important in a Pull production system?
- Batch sizes
What are the 4 assumptions of EOQ?
- Production is instant
- Delivery is immediate
- Demand is deterministic
- Demand is constant over time
What is the formula for Re-order Point?
ROP=demand per day * lead time for new order in days + Safety Stock
What is the equation for Total Cost?
TC=(D/Q)*S + (Q/2)*H + PD
What is internal time?
This is when things are done when the machine is turned off.
What is external time?
This is when things are done while the machine is running.