Anatomy Quiz # 2

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mitzenfauker
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7025
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Anatomy Quiz # 2
Updated:
2010-03-03 13:14:09
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Nick Mitz ULV Anatomy Labeling CellAnatomy
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Labeling and functions of cell anatomy
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  1. Cytology
    Study of cells
  2. Plasma Membrane
    • contains receptors for communcation
    • forms intercellular connections
    • acts as a physical barrier to enclose cell contents
    • regulates material movement into and out of the cell
  3. Cytoplasm
    What are the 3 components of cytoplasm?
    • site of metobolic processes of the cell
    • Stores nutrients and dissolved solutes
    • Three components:
    • - cytosol
    • - inclusions
    • - organelles
  4. Nucleus
    • cell's control center
    • controls protein synthesis
    • directs the functional and structural characteristics of the cell
    • controls all genetic information
  5. Cytosol
    • provides support for organelles
    • serves as viscous medium through which diffusion occurs
  6. Organelles
    carry out specific metabolic activities of the cell
  7. inclusions
    store materials
  8. Nuclear Envelope
    pores in envelope regulate exchange of materials with the cytoplasm
  9. Nuclear Pores
    • openings through the nuclear envelope
    • allow for passage of materials between nucleus and cytoplasm
  10. Nucleolus
    synthesizes rRNA and assembles ribosomes in the nucleus
  11. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (smooth ER)
    • interconnected network of membrane tubules and vesicles; no ribosomes
    • Synthesizes lipids
    • metabolizes carbohydrates
    • detoxifies drugs
    • alcohol
  12. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER)
    • synthesizes proteins for secretion
    • new proteins for the the plasma membrane and lysosomal enzymes
    • transports and stores molecules
  13. Golgi Apparatus
    • modifies, packages, and sorts newly synthesized proteins for lysosomes, secretion, and plasma membrane.
    • inclusion in new plasma membrane, or lysosomal enzyme synthesis
  14. Lysosomes
    • digest materials or microbes ingested by the cell
    • removes old/damaged organelles
  15. Peroxisomes
    • Detoxify harmful substances
    • Convert Hydrogren peroxide formed during metabolism to water
    • Breaks down fatty acid molecules.
  16. Mitochondria
    Synethsize most ATP during cellular respiration; "powerhouses of cell"
  17. Ribosomes
    • Synthesizes protein for:
    • 1. use in the cell
    • 2. secretion, incorporation into plasma membrane or lysosomes
  18. Cytoskeleten
    • Provides structural support
    • facilitates cytoplasmic streaming
    • organelle and cellular motality
  19. Microtubules
    • support cell
    • hold organelles in place
    • direct organelle movement within cell and cell motility as cilia and flagella
    • move chromosomes at cell division
  20. Centrosome
    Organizes microtubules during cell division for movement of chromosomes
  21. Cilia
    Move fluid, mucus, and materials over the cell surface
  22. Flagellum
    Propels sperm cells in human male
  23. Microvilli
    Increase membrane surface area for increased absorption and/or secretion
  24. Label this cell (top to bottom, left side first then right)
    • 1. Rough ER
    • 2. Ribosome
    • 3. Smooth ER
    • 4. Mitochondria
    • 5. Nuclear Pore
    • 6. Nucleolus
    • 7. Nuclear Membrane
    • 8. Golgi Body
    • 9. Centriole
    • 10. Lysosome
    • 11. Cytoplasm
    • 12. Plasma Membrane
  25. What are Lymphocytes
    • Aid in defense.
    • Produce Antibodies to target antigens or invading cells
  26. What are the three basic regions or components in a cell?
    • 1. Plasma (cell) membrane
    • 2. Cytoplasm
    • 3. Nucleus
  27. Types of Membrane Lipids
    • 1. Phospholipids
    • 2. Cholesterol
    • 3. Glycolipids
  28. Protein Specific Functions of Plasma Membrane
    • Transport
    • Intercellular attachment
    • Anchorage for the cytoskeleton
    • Enzyme activity
    • Cell-cell recognition
    • Signal transduction
  29. What is passive transport?
    • Does not require energy
    • Materials move from a High to Low concentration.

    example: Diffusion
  30. What is active transport?
    • Requires energy to perform action.
    • Materials move against a concentration gradient, going from a low to a high concentration.
  31. What is bulk transport?

    What is exocytosis?
    What is endocytosis?
    • Moves large molecules or bulk structures across plasma membrane
    • Requires Energy
    • Exocytosis - secreted out of the cell, vesicles fuse with plasma membrane.
    • Endocytosis - uptake into the cell, materials taken up into cell packaged into vesicles.
  32. What is cytosol?
    a viscous, syruplike fluid containing many different dissolved substances such as: ions, nutrients, proteins, carbs, and amino acids.
  33. What are membrane-bound organelles, and examples?
    Surrounded by a membrane

    • Examples
    • 1. Endoplasmic reticulum
    • 2. Golgi Apparatus
    • 3. Lysosomes
    • 4. Peroxisomes
    • 5. Mitochondria
  34. What are Non-Membrane-Bound organelles, and examples?
    In direct contact with the cytosol, containing no plasma membrane.

    • Examples
    • 1. Ribosomes
    • 2. Cytoskeleton
    • 3. Centrosomes and centrioles
    • 4. Cilia and Flagells
    • 5. Microvilli
  35. What happens in Interphase?
    • Cell is resting between cell divisions
    • Carries out normal activities
  36. What happens in G1 phase?
    • Cells Grow
    • Replicate new organelles
    • Produce proteins for replication and centrioles just prior to cell division
  37. What happens in S Phase
    "Synthesis" phase where DNA replicates in preparation to cell division
  38. What happens in G2 phase?
    • Centriole replication is complete
    • Other organelle production continues
    • Enzyme needed for cell division are synthesized.
  39. What happens in Prophase?
    • Chromatin become supercoiled to form chromosomes
    • Duplicate, identical sister chromatids join together, (region is called centromere)
    • Spindle fibers begin to grow
    • End is marked by the dissolution of nuclear envelope
  40. What happens in metaphase?
    • Chromosomes line up in the middle
    • Spindle fibers attach to centromeres of sister chromatids
  41. What happens in Anaphase?
    • Spindle fibers pull sister chromatids apart
    • Cell starts to show development of dividing
  42. What happens in Telophase?
    • Chromosomes begin to uncoil
    • Mitotic spindle disappears
    • Cell divides
  43. What is apoptosis?
    • Programmed cell death.
    • "Cell Suicide"

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