Anatomy Quiz # 2
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Anatomy Quiz # 2
Nick Mitz ULV Anatomy Labeling CellAnatomy
Labeling and functions of cell anatomy
Study of cells
contains receptors for communcation
forms intercellular connections
acts as a physical barrier to enclose cell contents
regulates material movement into and out of the cell
What are the 3 components of cytoplasm?
site of metobolic processes of the cell
Stores nutrients and dissolved solutes
cell's control center
controls protein synthesis
directs the functional and structural characteristics of the cell
controls all genetic information
provides support for organelles
serves as viscous medium through which diffusion occurs
carry out specific metabolic activities of the cell
pores in envelope regulate exchange of materials with the cytoplasm
openings through the nuclear envelope
allow for passage of materials between nucleus and cytoplasm
synthesizes rRNA and assembles ribosomes in the nucleus
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (smooth ER)
interconnected network of membrane tubules and vesicles; no ribosomes
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER)
synthesizes proteins for secretion
new proteins for the the plasma membrane and lysosomal enzymes
transports and stores molecules
modifies, packages, and sorts newly synthesized proteins for lysosomes, secretion, and plasma membrane.
inclusion in new plasma membrane, or lysosomal enzyme synthesis
digest materials or microbes ingested by the cell
removes old/damaged organelles
Detoxify harmful substances
Convert Hydrogren peroxide formed during metabolism to water
Breaks down fatty acid molecules.
Synethsize most ATP during cellular respiration; "powerhouses of cell"
Synthesizes protein for:
1. use in the cell
2. secretion, incorporation into plasma membrane or lysosomes
Provides structural support
facilitates cytoplasmic streaming
organelle and cellular motality
hold organelles in place
direct organelle movement within cell and cell motility as cilia and flagella
move chromosomes at cell division
Organizes microtubules during cell division for movement of chromosomes
Move fluid, mucus, and materials over the cell surface
Propels sperm cells in human male
Increase membrane surface area for increased absorption and/or secretion
Label this cell (top to bottom, left side first then right)
1. Rough ER
3. Smooth ER
5. Nuclear Pore
7. Nuclear Membrane
8. Golgi Body
12. Plasma Membrane
What are Lymphocytes
Aid in defense.
Produce Antibodies to target antigens or invading cells
What are the three basic regions or components in a cell?
1. Plasma (cell) membrane
Types of Membrane Lipids
Protein Specific Functions of Plasma Membrane
Anchorage for the cytoskeleton
What is passive transport?
Does not require energy
Materials move from a High to Low concentration.
What is active transport?
Requires energy to perform action.
a concentration gradient, going from a low to a high concentration.
What is bulk transport?
What is exocytosis?
What is endocytosis?
Moves large molecules or bulk structures across plasma membrane
Exocytosis - secreted out of the cell, vesicles fuse with plasma membrane.
Endocytosis - uptake into the cell, materials taken up into cell packaged into vesicles.
What is cytosol?
a viscous, syruplike fluid containing many different dissolved substances such as: ions, nutrients, proteins, carbs, and amino acids.
What are membrane-bound organelles, and examples?
Surrounded by a membrane
1. Endoplasmic reticulum
2. Golgi Apparatus
What are Non-Membrane-Bound organelles, and examples?
In direct contact with the cytosol, containing no plasma membrane.
3. Centrosomes and centrioles
4. Cilia and Flagells
What happens in Interphase?
Cell is resting between cell divisions
Carries out normal activities
What happens in G
Replicate new organelles
Produce proteins for replication and centrioles just prior to cell division
What happens in S Phase
"Synthesis" phase where DNA replicates in preparation to cell division
What happens in G
Centriole replication is complete
Other organelle production continues
Enzyme needed for cell division are synthesized.
What happens in Prophase?
Chromatin become supercoiled to form chromosomes
Duplicate, identical sister chromatids join together, (region is called centromere)
Spindle fibers begin to grow
End is marked by the dissolution of nuclear envelope
What happens in metaphase?
Chromosomes line up in the middle
Spindle fibers attach to centromeres of sister chromatids
What happens in Anaphase?
Spindle fibers pull sister chromatids apart
Cell starts to show development of dividing
What happens in Telophase?
Chromosomes begin to uncoil
Mitotic spindle disappears
What is apoptosis?
Programmed cell death.