Bones

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
70257
Filename:
Bones
Updated:
2011-03-02 18:17:27
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Bones by Melanie
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Description:
Anatomy & Physiology Lecture
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  1. Name the parts of this bone:
  2. What is Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progessiva (FOP)?
    • –Disease that occurs
    • when lymphocytes produce BMP-4 protein

    • •This is a protein
    • that triggers bone formation
  3. How does Bone
    density increase?
    Stress/force :

    • –1-physical action of
    • muscles pulling on bones stimulates osteoblasts-building bone

    –2- release of calcitonin which inhibits osteoclast activity
  4. Name the classification of bones and an example of each.
    • 1. Long bones - femur
    • 2. Short bones - carpals & tarsals
    • 3. Irregular - vertebrae - sacrum
    • 4. Flat - scapula
    • 5. Sesmoid - patella
  5. What are the 2 types of bone categories?
    • 1. Compact bone - 80%
    • 2. Spongy bone - short, flat, irregular bones - epiphysis of long bones
  6. Describe Intramembranous Ossification
    • 1. Sheets of messenchyme tissue - osteoblasts form and start making bone tissue, they group together to secrete bone matrix.
    • 2. Ca+ is deposited into the matrix and calcification begins - forming spikes called trabiculae.
    • 3. The trapped osteoblasts become osteocytes
    • 4. Trabeculae fuse together to become spongy bone.

    Flat bones, facial bones, sternum are made this way.
  7. Describe Endochondral Ossification
    • 1. Messenchyme cells gather in shape of future bone
    • 2. Chondroblasts - move into the messenchyme & begin forming cartilage in the shape of the future bone
    • 3. Starts in diaphysis - chondrocytes grow and burst changing the pH of matrix - which begins to harden - forming bone.
    • 4. As cartilage disintegrates bone is formed solid so osteoclasts move in to hollow out the center
    • 5. At the same time the outer edge of bone model - osteoblasts are forming bone
    • 6. In the epiphysis - osteoblasts invade cartilage on the end and begin forming trabeculae which forms spongy bone.
  8. Osteoperosis results from
    too much osteoclast activity
  9. What happens when there is too much Ca++ in the ECF?
    • Calcitonin (CTH) increases osteoblast activity and inhibits osteoclast activity - PTH is inhibited
    • Ca++ is deposited into skeletal system
  10. What happens when there is not enough Ca++ in the ECF
    Thyroid secretes Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) increasing osteoclasts - ultimately increasing Ca++ in ECF
  11. Bone Anatomy
  12. Regulation of growth
    Hypothalamus-releases:

    • Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) to the:

    • anterior pituitary-which releases:

    • GH-growth hormone

    •The level of growth hormone can result in disease.

    • Pre-growth plate closure

    • –Dec GH=Dwarfism
    • –Inc GH=Gigantism

    • • Post growth plate closure
    • Inc GH=Acromegaly

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