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_____________ arise from normal genes called Proto-oncogenes through genetic alterations such as chromosomal translocations, deletions, insertions, and point mutations
Oncogenes arise from normal genes called proto-oncogenes through genetic alterations such as ____________ translocations, deletions, insertions, and point mutations
____________ are responsible for encoding several components of signal transduction pathways, including growth factors, growth factor
receptors, signaling enzymes, and DNA transcription factors.
Proto-oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes provide the __________ and inhibitory signals, respectively, that regulate the cell cycle
___________________ is an enzyme that synthesizes sequences of telomeres, thereby enabling cells to proliferate endlessly
_________ and ___________are normal mechanisms for cell death. When the normal regulatory mechanisms for cellular growth fail, backup defense systems may be activated. These are secondary defenses and kick in when Primary defences such as EGFR/HER, Tumor supressor genes
and DNA repaid genes.
- (1) Apoptosis (programmed cell death or suicide)
- (2) Cellular senescence (aging)
(1) Cell-cycle phase-specific agents are generally given more frequently as ______________
(2) Whereas cell cycle phase-nonspecific agents are given as ____________
- (1) continuous infusions
- (2) a single dose.