USING RESTRICTION ENZYMES TO MAKE RECOMBINANT DNA:

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DesLee26
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70281
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USING RESTRICTION ENZYMES TO MAKE RECOMBINANT DNA:
Updated:
2011-03-02 19:38:00
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  1. __ and __rely on the use of enzymes that cut DNA molecule at a limited number of specific locations. These enzymes, called __ or __, were discovered in the late 1960s by researchers studying bacteria.
    • Gene cloning and genetic engineering
    • restriction endonucleases, or restriction enzymes
  2. How do restriction enzymes protect the bacteria?
    by cutting up foreign DNA from other organisms or phages.
  3. Each __is very specific, recognizing a particular short DNA sequence, or __, and cutting both DNA strands at precise points within this __.
    The DNA of a bacterial cell is protected from the cell’s own restriction enzymes by the addition of __groups to adenines or cytosines within the sequences recognized by the enzymes.
    • restriction enzyme
    • restriction site x2
    • methyl
  4. Most __are symmetrical, same on both strands when read in the 5->3direction.
    Most __recognize sequences containing four to eight nucleotides.
    Because any sequence this short usually occurs (by chance) many times in a long DNA molecule, a restriction enzyme will make many cuts in a DNA molecule, yielding a set of __.
    • restriction sites
    • restriction enzymes
    • restriction fragments
  5. All copies of a particular DNA molecule always yield the same set of __when exposed to the same restriction enzyme. In other words, a restriction enzyme cuts a DNA molecule in a reproducible way.
    restriction fragments
  6. The most useful restriction enzymes cleave the __ in the two DNA strands in a staggered manner.
    The resulting double-stranded restriction fragments have at least one single- stranded end, called a __.
    These short extensions can form hydrogen-bonded base pairs with complementary sticky ends on any other DNA molecules cut with the same enzyme.
    • sugar- phosphate backbones
    • sticky end
  7. The associations formed in this way are only temporary but can be made permanent by the enzyme __.
    DNA ligase

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