AR Midterm

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AR Midterm
2011-03-02 20:16:54

Aural Rehabilitation Midterm 1
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  1. Hearing Loss Characteristics
    • 1. Degree and configuration of impairment
    • 2. Time of onset
    • 3. Type of loss
    • Auditory speech recognition ability
  2. Degree of Impairment
    • Mild (children): 21 to 40 dB
    • Mild (adults): 26 to 40 dB
    • Moderate: 41 to 70 dB
    • Severe: 71 to 90 dB
    • Profound: Greater than 90 dB
    • Audiometrically deaf: PTA 90+ dB
    • Deaf: Individual obtains very little benefit from amplification in understanding speech
  3. Prelingually Deaf
    Congenitally deaf or acquired loss within first 5 years of life
  4. Postlingually deaf
    Acquired loss between 5 years of age through school years
  5. Deafened
    Acquired loss after education was completed
  6. Hard of Hearing
    Partial loss; either congenital or subsequently experienced
  7. 2 Consequences of Hearing Loss
    • 1. Primary (verbal communication)
    • Speech development
    • Language development
    • Communication ability
    • 2. Secondary (side effects of hearing loss)
    • Educational
    • Vocational
    • Psychological
    • Social
  8. History of Aural Rehabilitation
    • Mid to late 1500s
    • Poce de Leon demonstrated that persons who are deaf can be taught to speak and are capable of learning
  9. History in 1700s
    • Pereira introduced education to the deaf in France
    • De L'Eppe founded a school for the deaf in France
    • (manual method: fingerspelling and sign, also speechreading)
    • Gallaudet learned D L'Eppe's manual method of communication and brought it to the US where he opened his own successful school
  10. History Mid-1800s
    • Horace Mann, Alexander Graham - Bell, et al.
    • Speechreading and oral methods were promoted
  11. History 1900s
    • 1920-Electric amplification was developed
    • 1900 to 1930- Schools of lipreading (speechreading) were initiated
    • WWII- Birth of Audiology to rehabilitate servicemen (Military Rehabilitation Centers)
    • 1940 & 1950s - Audiologists provided speech-reading and auditory training
    • 1979- ASHA removed restrictive policy
  12. The Audiogram
    Most useful predictor of a person's speech perception abilities; however, other factors must also be considered.
  13. Redundancy in Speech
    • When a message is redundant, it is easier for hearing impaired listeners to predict what is being said when part of the auditory message is missing
    • Redundancy in speech helps in difficult listening situations
  14. Speech Perception & Hearing Loss
    • Minimal difficulty with vowel perception
    • Those with SNHL experience difficulty perceiving high frequency consonants
    • Final positions of words are missed more than in the initial position
    • Most common errors occur with the place of artic freature
    • Second most common involves the manner of artic
    • Errors of nasality and voice are least frequent
  15. Evaluating Children - Consider the Child's
    • Age
    • Physical development
    • Cognitive development
    • Goal of testing
  16. Evaluating Children- Infants
    • Gross discrimination
    • Localization
  17. Evaluating Children- Young children
    • Informal testing
    • Observation
    • Identify auditory skills the child possesses
  18. Evaluating Children-Older Children
    • Formal in-depth assessments
    • Assess overall speech perception abilities
  19. Formal Tests for Older Children with Hearing Impairment- Designed to assess speech perception:
    • Word Intelligibility by Picture Identification (WIPI)
    • Northwestern University Children's Perception of Speech (NU-CHIPS)
    • Six Sound Test
  20. Word Intelligibility by Picture Identification (WIPI)
    • Vocabulary appropriate for children with HI
    • 25 monosyllabic words
    • 4 lists
    • Closed-response format (pictures)
    • Can be used for children with limited understanding and use of language
  21. Northwestern University Children's Perception of Speech (NU-CHIPS)
    • Vocabulary appropriate for children with HI
    • 50 monosyllabic nouns
    • 4 lists
    • Closed response format (pictures)
  22. Six Sound Test
    Isolated phonemes are spoken to the child at a normal conversation level
  23. Evaluating Adults
    • Tests for overall word-recognition abilities
    • In-depth assessment of the perception of consonants
    • Speech perception in noise
  24. Tests for overall word-recognition abilities:
    • CID W-22s
    • NU-6 = Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6