MA 201 Clinical Duties

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Author:
Shutrbug20
ID:
70353
Filename:
MA 201 Clinical Duties
Updated:
2011-03-20 23:27:45
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Immune
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Description:
Chapter 11 Unit 9
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  1. Function of Immune System
    • 1. To protect body against invaders
    • 2. Recognize things as SELF or Non-SELF
    • 3. Attempts to destroy non-self things (protection)
  2. Homeostasis
    • Everything in harmony
    • Bio indicators within limits
  3. Name some Antigens
    • 1. bacteria
    • 2. viruses
    • 3. fungi
    • 4. parasites
    • 5. foreign matter
  4. List 5 types Foreign Matter
    • 1. Cell
    • 2. Tissue
    • 3. Protein
    • 4. Food
    • 5. Air Particles
  5. List some Non-Self bodies
    • 1. antigens
    • 2. blood or tisue from transplant
    • 3. foreign material
    • 4. food we eat
    • 5. particles in the air
    • 6. allergens
  6. Name 3 Immune system Lines of Defense
    • BARRIERS
    • 1. Anatomical barriers
    • -skin / mucose membranes
    • 2. Biological barriers
    • -sweat / oil on skin
    • 3. Mechanical barriers
    • -dead skin sloughs off
    • -vomiting
    • -coughing

    • INFLAMMATION
    • When exterior barriers broken
    • -injury or invasion
    • Results in warm, red, swollen skin

    • ANTIBODY DEFENSE
    • specific cells that attack antigen
  7. Name 3 Immune Functions
    • 1. Identify self non-self
    • 2. Maintain Homeostasis
    • 3. Continual surveillance
  8. Name 3 types of cells in blood stream
    • 1. Red blood cells (RBC) Erythrocytes - carry O2 to the cells
    • 2. Platelets Thrombocytes - clot blood
    • 3. White blood cells (WBC) Leucocytes - fight disease as part of the immune system
  9. Name 2 types of White Blood Cells (WBC)
    • Granulated
    • -Eosinophils
    • -Neutrophils
    • -Basophils

    • Non-Granulated (most common)
    • -Lymphocytes
    • -Monocytes
  10. Monocytes (WBC) Non-granulated
    Immature cells grow/develope into large cells

    Macrophages - help fight infection through phagocytosis (engulf and destroy)
  11. Lymphocytes (WBC) Non-granulated
    Recognize specific antigen target

    • 2 Types
    • 1. T-Lymphocytes mature in Thymus gland (T for T)
    • 2. B-Lymphocytes mature in bone marrow (B for B)
  12. Thymus
    • Located in anterior portion of chest
    • Dissapears over time by late ages
    • Older people get sick easier without it.
  13. List 8 Organs of Immune System
    • 1. Bone marrow
    • -fight invaders that reach circulatory system
    • 2. Thymus Gland
    • -where t-lymph mature
    • 3. Lymph Nodes
    • -filters antigens for destruction
    • 4. Spleen
    • -fight invaders that reach circulatory system
    • -carries tons of red blood cells (RBC)
    • -if gone, will get sick easier
    • 5. Tonsils
    • -fight invaders of the respiratory system
    • 6. Adenoids
    • -fight invaders of the respiratory system
    • 7. Appendix
    • -fight invaders of the digestive system (vestigal organ / not needed)
    • 8. Peyer's Patches
    • -in intestinal track (the ilium)
    • -fight invaders of the digestive track
    • -where they grow
  14. Cell Markers
    How immune cells determine if encountered cells if self non-self
  15. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)
    This is the self marker for all cells
  16. Foreign Cells
    Any cell without the MHC marker

    Will be destroyed by immune system
  17. T-Lymphocytes
    • Most abundant of all WBC.
    • Acts directly on invading cells.
  18. List 4 types of T-Lymphocytes
    • 1. Helper T-cells
    • - helps other cells perform functions
    • - act as security and detecs invaders
    • - have a CD4+ marker (checked during HIV infection)

    • 2. Suppressor T-cells
    • - keep virus at bay (no flare-ups)

    • 3. Killer T-cells
    • - directly kill non-self cells
    • - aka Cytotoxic T-cells

    • 4. Memory T-cells
    • - injury (will remember what did last time and act faster)
    • - muscle memory from repitition
  19. B-Lymphocytes
    • Produce antibodies
    • - cell markers that fit specific antigen and make useless. (Virus)
    • - known as
    • - Humoral Response (B-Cell) or
    • - Antibody-mediated (T-Cell) response
  20. Extra Information
    • 1. CBC most common blood draw
    • 2. Elevated WBC count = internal infection
    • 3. Sarc=flesh
    • 4. Oma=tumor/mass
    • 5. Hep C most deadly, no cure
    • 6. Erytheme "means red"
  21. Inflammation
    • - cells release histamine
    • - dialates blood vessels
    • - slows blood flow, allows vessel walls to be more permiable
    • - results in warm, redness, and swelling
  22. Immunization
    • - deliberate introduction of specific antibody
    • - allows cells in body to learn to kill that type of cell
    • - may need boosters later on (tetnis)
  23. Active Immunity
    Makes own immunity with a vaccines
  24. Passive Immunity
    Another source injected to counter imediate attack (Tetanus)

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