Serology / Immunology Review

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moses1424
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Serology / Immunology Review
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2011-03-03 16:30:22
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Serology Immunology Review
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Serology / Immunology Review
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  1. Function of the immune system.
    • Recognise self from non-self
    • Defend body against non-self
  2. 2 Divisions of the immune system
    • Non Specific
    • Specific
  3. Non Specific Immunity
    • Not specific against one specific disease.
    • Immunity that is innate or inborn
  4. 3 Catagories of non-specific immunity
    • Nonsusceptability.
    • Naturally Occuring Antibodies.
    • Resistance.
  5. 2 Types of resistance
    • Passive resistance
    • Active resistance
  6. Passive resistance
    • Called external defense system.
    • Includes Structural Barriers.
    • First line of defense in intact skin & mucous membranes.
    • Skin temp
    • body secretions
    • cilia
  7. Active Resistance
    • Called Internal defense system
    • body responds to foreign antigen
  8. Types of actuve resistance.
    • Phagocytosis.
    • NK Cells.
    • Acute Phase reactants.
    • Soluble Mediators
    • Inflammation
  9. Acute phase reactants.
    • Soluble proteins produced in the liver in response to Antigen stimulation.
    • 2 most common are: C reactive proteins and complement.
  10. C Reactive Protein (CRP)
    • Globulin produced during inflammation.
    • Not found in normal serum.
    • Production begins within 4 hours of onset of inflammation
    • disappears from serum rapidly after inflammation is gone.
  11. Complement
    • Beta globulin found in serum in active from.
    • Series of 9-18 plasma proteins (complements)
    • Also called soluble mediator
  12. Function of complement
    • Opsonin
    • Chemotaxic
    • Complement Fixation
  13. Soluble Mediators
    • Plasma proteins produced in response to antigen stimulation.
    • 2 catagories : complement & cytokines.
  14. Cytokines
    plasma proteins produced by activated cells that regulate immune responses.
  15. What are cytokines that are produced by lymphocytes called?
    Lymphokines
  16. Types of Cytokines
    • Lymphokines
    • Interleukin
    • Interferon
    • Tumor necrosis Factor (TNF)
    • Colony Stimulating Factor (CFS)
    • Transforming Growth factor
  17. Interleukin
    • Group of 12 cytokines
    • act between leukocytes
    • do not bind to antigen
  18. Interferon
    • Produced by virally infected cells
    • proteins that interfere with viral replication
    • 3 major calles are alpha beta gamma
  19. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)
    • Cytokines that can destroy tumor cells.
    • 2 types: alpha beta
    • Can cause shock and death if they reach the blood stream.
  20. Colony Stimulating Factor (CSF)
    • Proteins that stimulate production of non-lymphoid cells.
    • Some of the CSF are produced by T-lymphocytes.
  21. Transforming Growth Factor.
    • Protein product produce by virally infected cells
    • 2 forms alpha and beta
    • transforms neoplastic cells
  22. Specific Immunity
    • Also called aquired or adaptive immunity.
    • Immunity against specific disease.
    • 2 catagories: cell mediated and humoral.
  23. Cell mediated immunity
    • Involves T-Lymphocytes
    • Organ/ Graft rejection
    • delayed hyper sensitivity
    • contact dermititis
  24. Humoral Immunity
    • Involves both T-Lymphs and B-lymphs
    • antibody prodection by b-lymphs
    • can be actively or passively aquired
    • aquired through artificial or natural means
  25. Actively aquired humoral immunity
    • Antibody production following antigen stimulation
    • Antigen stimulation may be natural or artificial.
    • Natural = contracting the disease
    • Artificial = Vaccine
  26. Passively Aquired Humoral Immunity
    • Antibodies are not prduced in an individual.
    • Individual aquires antibody through natural or artificial means.
    • Antibody aquired through placnta or brest milk.
    • Antibody acquired artificially in anitibody shots (injections)
  27. Antigens
    • Any foreign substance that causes immune response.
    • Immune response can be cell-mediated or humoral.
    • Protein carrier with 3D surface structures called epitopes.
  28. Types of Antigens
    • Autoantigen (self)
    • Heteroantigen (different, but related species)
    • Heterophile (different, unrelated species)
    • Allo or Iso antigens (same species)
    • HLA (human leukocyte antigen)
  29. HLA (human leukocyte antigen)
    • On surface of all cells, not just WBCs.
    • MHC ( major histocompatability complex) antigens make up HLA.
    • 2nd ABO group in determining success of grafts or transplants.
    • MHC antigens are genetically determined.
  30. Antigen Charactaristics
    • Complex Chemical Structure.
    • Must be considered foreign
    • Degradability / Stability
    • Molecular weight over 10,000
  31. Antibodies
    • Gamma Globulin with immune functions
    • Called immunoglobulins (IG)
    • Produced by transformed B-Lymphocytes in lymphoid tissue.
  32. 5 Immunoglobulin classes
    • IgA
    • IgD
    • IgE
    • IgG
    • IgM
  33. Functions of Antibodies
    • Combine with antigens and neutralize it.
    • Combine with antigen an lyze it.
    • Some antibodies are complement dependant.
  34. IgG
    • 70-75% of circulating antibodies.
    • 1 basic unit with 150,000 mole wt
    • Crosses the placenta.
    • 4 subclasses with different heavy chain composition.
    • Neutralize and bind antigen.
    • React at 37 C following incubation or enhancement.
  35. IgM
    • 10% of circulating antibodies are IgM.
    • 5 basic units & a J chain with 900,000 mole wt.
    • Does not cross the placenta.
    • No subclasses.
    • Agglutination antigen and are cytolytic.
    • React at 22c immediatly
  36. IgA
    • 15-20% of circulating antibodies
    • Exists as monomer in serum.
    • Exists as dimer in body fluids.
    • Both forms posses a J chain
    • Mole weight of dimer is 360,000
    • 2 subclasses
    • Does not cross the placenta
  37. IgD
    • <1% of circulating antibodies
    • Cell membrane immunoglobulin
    • 160,000 mole wt
    • 1 basic unit with no J chain
    • No interchain S-S bonds
    • Hinge region is exposed
    • Does not cross the placenta
    • no subclasses
  38. IgE
    • present in serum and plasma in trace amounts
    • 1 basic unit with no J chain
    • 180,000 mole weight
    • Fc portion can bind with mast cell
    • does not cross the placenta
    • no known classes
    • takes part in hypersensitive reactions
  39. 4 polypeptide chains in Y shape
    • 2 light chains ( kappa and lambda)
    • 65% of light chains are kappa
    • 35% lambda
    • 2 heavy chains (A,G,D,E,M)
  40. Light and heavy chains are linked by?
    non covalent S-S bonds
  41. Hinge region composed of?
    15 amino acids between CH1 and CH2 region
  42. Variable protion are fist _____ amino acids
    110-120 on NH2 end
  43. Folding within chain disulfide bonds are?
    Domains
  44. What portion contains antibody binding sites?
    FAB
  45. What portion has ability to crystalize?
    FC
  46. Isotype
    • Iso=same
    • part of Antibody structure that is the same in all humans
  47. allotype
    • Structure of antibodies that is found on some but not all antibodies.
    • structure of ab that is genetically determined.
    • used as genetic markers
  48. Idiotype
    Unique variations of the variable portions of an AB
  49. AB Synthesis sequence.
    • Macrophage phagocytizes foreign antigen.
    • Breaks down AG and collects info.
    • Receptor appears on Macrophage.
    • Macrophage finds T helper cell w/ compatible receptor.
    • T-cell combines and downloads info.
    • T helper secretes lymphokines and stimulates b-cell activation
    • B-cell transforms into Plasma cell
    • starts AB production
  50. Long Lag phase
    7-10 days (primary)
  51. First produced AB
    IgM
  52. Short lag phase
    48 hours (secondary)
  53. Secondary AB
    IgM
  54. decline phase very slow
    • Secondary
    • can take years
  55. Factors affecting AB production
    • Age
    • Nutrician / diet
    • Stress and Hormones
    • Underlying Diseases
  56. When does bone marrow take over lymphocyte production?
    6-8 months
  57. Hormone that stimulates maturation of T-Lymphs
    Thymosin
  58. T cells are tested for what during maturation?
    Self recognition
  59. 2 types of t-lymphs
    • T-helper
    • T-suppresor/cytotoxic
  60. TH cells make up what percent of lymphocytes?
    55-70%
  61. TS makes up what percent of lymphocytes
    25-40%
  62. CD2
    distiguishes T-cells
  63. what is CD?
    • Cluster of differentiations
    • t cell surface markers
  64. CD3
    marker need to pass self recognition test
  65. CD4
    Class 2 MHC is on T helper cells
  66. CD8
    Class 1 MHC is on T-S cells
  67. B-lymphs make up what percent of circulating lymphocytes?
    20%
  68. Surface Receptors on B-lymphs are called?
    Ig receptor
  69. Ig receptors are specific to what?
    Various antigens prior to exposure.
  70. NK cells
    • 5-10% of circulating lymphs
    • Lack surface markers of T and B cells
    • Used to be called Null Cells
    • Destroys target cells directly
  71. Primary immune disorders
    • 75% affect beofre age 5
    • Defects in T or B line
    • Aids
    • SLE
    • Hodgkins
    • DiGeorge's Syndrome
    • Multiple Myeloma
  72. Secondary Immune disorders
    • Underlying disease that impares that immune system.
    • Temorary or perminant
    • Viral Infections
    • Diabetes Mellitus
  73. Leukocytes communicate how?
    • Physical contact
    • or siluble mediators (chemical substances)
  74. AG and AB bonding creates what?
    • Complex
    • Bond is non-covalent and reversible
  75. Types of Bonds AB-AG reactions
    • Hydrogen
    • Hydrophilic
    • Van Der Waals forces.
  76. Specificity
    Ability of an AB to combine with one specific AG
  77. Affinity
    Bond that forms between AB and AG
  78. Avidity
    Strength of bond between AG - AB
  79. Cross reactivity
    • AB can combine with AG tht has similar epitopes.
    • Heterophile antibodies
  80. Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
    • Uses isotope lable
    • Competative binding
    • Labled AB vs. unlabled AB competeing with binding with known antigen
  81. Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA)
    • Enzyme labeled antibody conjugate (AHG)
    • competative binding (sandwich principle)
    • Enzyme causes a color change
  82. Common Colloidal particls used with Sol particle Immunoassay.
    Gold, Silver, Iodine, barium, sulfate
  83. Nephlometry
    Light scatter of macro immune complexes
  84. Flow symetry
    • stained cell passes single file through laser
    • cell flourecents a distinctive color of light
  85. >5000 daltons
    Antigen
  86. Hapton
    • <5000 daltons
    • can combine with protein to become Antigen
  87. IgA
    has J chain
  88. How many classes does MHC have?
    3
  89. Ouchterlony
    forwny face
  90. final visible result of a soluble Antigen to it's antiserum?
    Precipitation
  91. Plasma cell that makes one specific AB
    Monocolonal
  92. Neutralizes toxins
    Antitoxen
  93. lysosime
    enzyme found in tears and other secretions

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