Definitions A-D

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Definitions A-D
2011-03-02 23:38:46

A-D Definitions
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  1. Acalculia
    Inability to perform simple arithmetic operations; inability to calculate
  2. Agnosia
    The inability to recognize familiar objects w/ one sensory modality, while retaining the ability to regonize the same object with other sensory modalities.
  3. Agraphia
    Disorders of writing not due to motor difficulties in letter formation
  4. Akinesia
    Inability to initiate or execute movement
  5. Allograft
    Skin used for temporary coverage of a burn wound; the skin is taken form the same species (usually cadaver skin)
  6. Anarthria
    Unintelligible speech resulting from a brain lesion, particularly in the brdainstem, causing severe impairment of the motor-speech system.
  7. Anosognosia
    A perceptual impairment including denial, neglect, and lack of awareness of the presence of severity of one's paralysis
  8. Anterior cord syndrome
    An incomplete spinal cord lesion with primary damage in the anterior cord; there is loss of motor function and sense of pain and temperature, with preservation of proprioception, kinesthesia, and vibration below the level of the lesion.
  9. Aphasia
    Communication disorder caused by brain damage and characterized by an impairment of language comprehension, formulation, and use; excludes disorders associated with primary sensory deficits, general mental deterioration, or psychiatric disorders.
  10. Apraxia
    An impairment of boluntary learned movements taht is characterized by an inability to perfrom puposeful movements not accounted for by inadequate strength, loss of coordination, impaired sensation, attenional deficits, or lack of comprehension
  11. Astereognosis (tactile agnosia)
    Inability to recognize the form and shape of objects by touch
  12. Asthenia
    Generalized muscle weakness, especially in muscular or crebellar disease
  13. Ataxia
    Uncoordinated movement that manifests when voluntary movements are attempted; may influence gait, posture, and patterns of movments.
  14. Athetosis
    A condition in which slow, involuntary writhing, twisting "wormlike" movements occur.
  15. Boutonniere Deformity
    Contracture of hand musculature marked by proximal interphalangeal joint flexion and distal interphalangeal joint extension
  16. Brown-Sequard Syndrome
    Incomplete spinal cord lesion caused by hemisection of the cord; characterized by loss of motor function, proprioception, and kinesthesia on the side of th elesion w/ loss of sense of pain and temperature on the opposite side.
  17. Bulbocavernosus reflex (positive)
    pressure on the glans penis or glans clitoris that elicits a contraction of the external anal sphincter.
  18. Cauda equina lesion
    A spainal injury with damage to peripheral nerve roots below the first lumbar vertebra; some regeneration is possible
  19. Central cord syndrome
    Incomplete spinal cord lesion characterized by greater neurological involvement in upper extremities ( cervical tracts more centrally located) than in the lower extremities (lulmbar and sacral tracts are more peripheral)
  20. Chorea
    A movement disorder characterized by involuntary, rapid, irregular, jerky movements; seen in Huntington's disease
  21. Choreoathetosis
    Movement disorder with features of both chorea and athetosis, seen in some forms of cerebral palsy
  22. clonus
    Cyclical, spasmodic alteration of muscular contraction and relaxation in response to a sustained stretch of a spastic muscle
  23. Conduction time (NCV)
    Time difference between the distal and proximal points of stimulation along a nerve trun in a nerve conduction velocity test
  24. Confabulation
    The patient fills in memory gaps with inappropriate words or fabricates stories.
  25. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    Surgical revascularization procedure to restore coronary blood flow through new blood vessel grafts.
  26. Coronary artery disease (CAD)
    heart disease resultin from a narrowin gof the coronary arteries as a result of atherosclerosis
  27. Coup-contrecoup injury
    injury caused by back-and-forth movemetn of the brain in the skull, coup contusionas occur at the site of impact while contrecoup contusions occur in the brain opposite the initial point of impact.
  28. Crede maneuver
    Technique for emptying urine form flaccid bladder; repeated pressure is placed between the umbilicus and symphsis pubis in a downward direction; manual pressure is also placed directly over the bladder to further facilitate removal of urine.