CogSci Vision

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afdrummond
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70374
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CogSci Vision
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2011-03-02 23:43:32
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Cognitive Science uncc faust psyc3216 psychology itcs3216 vision module test2
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Cognitive Science Vision Module - Test 2
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  1. When light enters the eye, it passes through (in order):
    a. lens, pupil, cornea
    b. pupil, lens, cornea
    c. cornea, pupil, lens
    d. cornea, lens, pupil
    c. cornea, pupil, lens
  2. The receptor cells for the sense of vision are located in the:
    A. thalamus
    B. retina
    C. cornea
    D. cortex
    B. retina
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Light is transformed to nerve impulses by the:
    A. bipolar cells
    B. rods and cones
    C. ganglion cells
    D. optic nerve
    B. rods and cones
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Accommodation plays an important role in:
    A. visual acuity
    B. color vision
    C. black and white vision
    D. movement perception
    A. visual acuity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Which of the following is not characteristic of rods?
    A. they are in high concentration outside the fovea
    B. they contain erythrolabe
    C. they are sensitive to light
    D. they are responsible for black and white vision
    B. they contain erythrolabe
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Bringing an object under a lamp makes it easier to see the details because the light:
    A. increases production of rhodopsin
    B. increases the size of the pupil
    C. stimulates greater number of rods
    D. stimulates greater number of cones
    D. stimulates greater number of cones
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Which of the following is true regarding an off-center receptive field of the retina?
    A. when a spot of light covers both center and surround of the receptive field, the cell's response is very strong
    B. when a spot of light covers the center area of the receptive field, the cell's firing rate increases
    C. when a spot of light covers the surround of the receptive field, the cell's firing rate increases
    D. when a spot of light does not cover both the center and surround of the receptive field, the cell's firing rate increases
    C. when a spot of light covers the surround of the receptive field, the cell's firing rate increases
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Receptive cells in the visual cortex that respond to a combination of stimulus features are known as:
    A. hypercomplex cells
    B. ganglion cells
    C. complex cells
    D. simple cells
    A. hypercomplex cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Which of the following statements about the secondary visual pathway is correct?
    A. it is made up of magnocellular cells
    B. it ends in the temporal lobe
    C. it consists of 80% of the ganglion cell fibers
    D. it is responsible for color vision
    A. it is made up of magnocellular cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. The biased and ambiguous wife/mother-in-law figures are an example of:
    A. figure/ground reversibility
    B. similarity principle
    C. contrast effect
    D. context effect
    D. context effect
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Our tendency to perceive elements that are close to one another as a unit is called:
    A. good continuation
    B. proximity
    C. similarity
    D. closure
    B. proximity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. The condition under which people experience the perceptual phenomenon of closure involves:
    A. two parallel lines
    B. a figure with missing gaps
    C. a symmetrical figure
    D. an ambiguous figure
    B. a figure with missing gaps
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. The perception of depth when you look at the picture of the railroad tracks is primarily due to:
    A. retinal disparity
    B. interposition
    C. texture density
    D. linear perspective
    D. linear perspective
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. All of the following are monocular cues except:
    A. retinal disparity
    B. linear perspective
    C. texture density
    D. motion parallax
    A. retinal disparity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. The depth cue that relies on the fact that elements of a patterned surface are closer together with distance from the observer is called:
    A. texture density gradient
    B. interposition
    C. retinal disparity
    D. linear perspective
    A. texture density gradient
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. You are most likely to experience motion parallax when:
    A. you are standing on the ground and looking at a railroad track
    B. you are looking out of a window of a moving train
    C. you are standing on the ground and looking at a moving train
    D. you are moving and observing the texture density gradient
    B. you are looking out of a window of a moving train
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Template matching theory:
    A. suggests that images are processed in a holistic way
    B. is an adequate explanation of human vision
    C. holds that object perception is influenced primarily by the stimulus features
    D. belongs to bottom-up theories of object perception
    A. suggests that images are processed in a holistic way
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Which theory uses a group of "demons" whose job is to extract information about the visual stimulus in a hierarchical manner?
    A. computational theory
    B. recognition by components
    C. template matching
    D. feature analysis
    D. feature analysis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. All of the following are characteristics of geons except:
    A. they are distinguishable from one another from most perspectives
    B. they make-up all objects in natural scenes
    C. they can be recognized from different perspectives
    D. they cannot be recognized when partially obscured
    D. they cannot be recognized when partially obscured
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which of the following is a true similarity between the computational theory and the recognition by components theory?
    A. both theories identify objects by comparing them with images in memory
    B. both theories concentrate on describing human vision
    C. both theories aim to explain perception in natural scenes
    D. both theories include top-down processes in object perception
    C. both theories aim to explain perception in natural scenes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Which theory mentions geons as fundamental units of object perception?
    A. feature analysis
    B. template matching
    C. computational theory
    D. recognition by components
    D. recognition by components
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Our ability to identify objects as long as there is enough information to recover the geons is called:
    A. principle of componential recovery
    B. template matching
    C. proximity principle
    D. feature analysis
    A. principle of componential recovery
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. All of the following, at least in part, are bottom-up approaches to object perception except:
    A. template matching
    B. computational theory
    C. feature analysis
    D. recognition by components
    A. template matching
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. According to computational theory, in which of the following representations are primitives identified?
    A. the primal sketch
    B. the 3-D sketch
    C. the retinal image
    D. the 2.5-D sketch
    A. the primal sketch
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. In the computational theory, one of the differences between the 2.5D sketch and the 3D sketch is that:
    A. the 3-D sketch consists of more primitives
    B. in the 2.5-D sketch the primitives are grouped according to Gestalt laws
    C. the 3-D sketch includes information about motion
    D. the 2.5-D sketch includes information about motion
    A. the 3-D sketch consists of more primitives
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Which theory mentions edges and bars as primitives?
    A. recognition by components
    B. Marr's computational theory
    C. template matching
    D. feature analysis
    B. Marr's computational theory
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. The Pandemonium model holds that:
    A. we identify objects by comparing them with images stored in memory
    B. our perception is primarily influenced by our expectations and past experiences
    C. our object perception is based on a series of hierarchical data-driven processes
    D. object identification is possible as long as we can recover the object's geons
    C. our object perception is based on a series of hierarchical data-driven processes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. The theories of object perception that is focused primarily on explaining computer vision is:
    A. computational theory
    B. recognition by components
    C. feature analysis
    D. template matching
    A. computational theory
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. What is ACCOMMODATION?
    process by which the lens changes shape in order to produce sharp images on the retina.
  30. What is ASTIGMATISM?
    an optical defect in which the surface of the cornea is not perfectly spherical
  31. What are BINOCULAR DEPTH CUES?
    information about depth that requires both eyes to function simultaneously
  32. What are BOTTOM-UP THEORIES?
    theories that emphasize stimulus-driven processes in explaining object perception
  33. What is CLOSURE?
    tendency to fill in the missing gaps in visual information
  34. What are CONES?
    receptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision
  35. What is CONTRAST?
    difference between the amount of light reflected by an object and the amount of light reflected by its surroundings
  36. What is CONVERGENCE?
    an oculomotor depth cue that comes from muscles controlling eye movements
  37. What is the CORNEA?
    the transparent surface in front of the eye through which light passes to the interior; first refractive surface of the eye
  38. What is CORTICAL MAGNIFICATION?
    overrepresentation of the center of the visual field in the striate cortex
  39. What is DUPLEX THEORY OFVISION?
    the human eye represents two intermingled visual systems: cone and rod vision
  40. What is the FOVEA?
    a place on the retina of maximum visual acuity
  41. What are GEONS?
    geometric icons that are the building blocks to object perception; 3-dimensional shapes like blocks, wedges, and cones
  42. What is GOOD CONTINUATION?
    tendency to group elements of a pattern that flow in the same direction
  43. What is INTERPOSITION?
    a monocular depth cue in which an object that partly blocks another appears closer than the blocked object
  44. What is the IRIS?
    the pigmented muscular structure in the eye containing the pupil, which regulates the amount of light that falls on the retina
  45. What is the LENS?
    the transparent structure in the eye that focuses light on the retina
  46. What is LINEAR PERSPECTIVE?
    a monocular depth cue in which two parallel lines seem to come together at a distance
  47. What are MONOCULAR DEPTH CUES?
    information about depth that is available to either eye alone
  48. What is MOTION PARALLAX?
    the relative apparent motion of objects as the observer moves
  49. What is PERCEPTION?
    organization and interpretation of sensory data
  50. What are PRIMITIVES?
    fundamental units of objects perception
  51. What is the PRINCIPLE OF COMPONENTIAL RECOVERY?
    a basic principle of Biederman's theory that says that we can identify objects as long as we have enough information to recover their geons
  52. What is the PUPIL?
    an opening in the iris through which light enters the eye
  53. What is the RAW PRIMAL SKETCH?
    representation of a natural scene that identifies primitives and edges
  54. What is the RECEPTIVE FIELD?
    the area on the retina that influences a ganglion cell's firing rate
  55. What are RECEPTOR CELLS?
    neural cells that are capable of responding to a physical stimulus and producing a neural impulse
  56. What is the RETINA?
    the third innermost layer of the eye containing the receptors for the sense of vision
  57. What is RETINAL DISPARITY?
    a binocular depth cue based on the difference in the retinal image when the same object is viewed by both eyes
  58. What are RODS?
    receptor cells in the retina responsible for night vision
  59. What is SENSORY TRANSDUCTION?
    process by which physical energy becomes transformed into neural energy
  60. What is SIMILARITY?
    the tendency to group elements of a pattern that are similar to one another
  61. What is SYMMETRY?
    the tendency to group elements of a pattern that are symmetrical to one another
  62. What is the TEXTURE DENSITY GRADIENT?
    a monocular depth cue based on changes in size and clarity of surface patterns
  63. What are TOP-DOWN THEORIES?
    theories that emphasize the role of high level conceptual processes (e.g. expectations, past experiences) in explaining object perception
  64. What is the 2.5 D SKETCH?
    a representation developed in an intermediate stage of processing in which the Gestalt laws of perceptual organization are used to group primitives
  65. What is the 3 D SKETCH?
    representation developed during the last stage of processing containing depth and motion information

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