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What is Inductive Reasoning?
reasoning that uses specific examples to draw a general conclusion or discover a general principle.
What is the Problem of Induction?
(Hume) that the process does not establish the reliability of induction, except inductively.
What is Deductive Reasoning?
reasoning that operates from generalities to specifics and can make relationships among data more apparent.
What is Critical Thinking?
The ability to acquire information, analyse and evaluate it, and reach a conclusion or answer by using logic and reasoning skills.
What is the Scientific method?
the way a scientist approaches a problem: by formulating a hypothesis and then testing it by means of an experiment.
What is a Hypothesis?
an educated guess, that might be true and is testable by observation and experimentation.
What is a Null Hypothesis?
The hypothesis we wish to falsify on the basis of the data. Typically, that something is not present, that there is no effect, or that there is no difference between treatment and control.
What is a theory?
an elegant explanation of numerous hypotheses, each of which is supported by a large body of observations and experiments.
What does Falsifiable mean?
(Falsificationist / Popperian) capable of being tested (verified or falsified) by experiment or observation.
What does Objective mean?
undistorted by emotion or personal bias
What does Subjective mean?
taking place within the mind and modified by personal bias
what is a Controlled Experiment?
An experiment that uses the method of comparison to evaluate the effect of a treatment by comparing treated subjects with a control group, which does not receive the treatment. In the experiment, all factors which might affect the outcome of the tests must be made as uniform as possible, except for the factor being tested.
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