CogSci Memory Module

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afdrummond
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70385
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CogSci Memory Module
Updated:
2011-03-03 00:48:58
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Cognitive Science UNCC Faust psychology PSYC3216 ITCS3216
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Cognitive Science Memory Module - Test 2
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  1. Most of the information that enters the human memory system is:
    A. encoded into permanent memory
    B. lost at the sensory memory level
    C. lost at the working memory level
    D. encoded into working memory
    B. lost at the sensory memory level
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. That part of permanent memory that stores general knowledge is referred to as ____ memory.
    A. episodic
    B. semantic
    C. procedural
    D. declarative
    B. semantic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. An advantage of PDP models over sequential models of memory is that PDP models work very well for explaining:
    A. complex organizations of human knowledge
    B. complex and simultaneous mental operations
    C. the virtually limitless capacity of memory
    d. all of the above
    B. complex and simultaneous mental operations
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Research by Ebbinghaus and others shows that most of the forgetting of information learned occurs:
    A. soon after the learning
    B. sporadically
    C. 24 hours after the learning
    D. within the first two days
    A. soon after the learning
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. When old information makes it difficult to retrieve relatively new information, we say that ____ interference has occurred.
    A. Proactive
    B. Retroactive
    C. Interactive
    D. Hyperactive
    A. Proactive
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. After presentation of a list of words, a group of individuals recalling those words are most likely to:
    A. remember the first and last few words in the list the best
    B. remember the words in the middle of the list the best
    C. remember the last few words in the list the best
    D. remember the first few words in the list the best
    A. remember the first and last few words in the list the best
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Which of the following tasks during encoding would lead to the best performance on a surprise test of memory?
    A. deciding whether or not each word referred to you
    B. naming a rhyming word for each word presented
    C. determining whether or not each word would fit into a given sentence
    D. counting the number of letters in each presented word
    A. deciding whether or not each word referred to you
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. After attempting to learn to recite the alphabet backward, one would predict on the basis of the serial position curve, that individuals would have the hardest time reciting which of the following groups of letters?
    A. zyxwv
    B. qponm
    C. edcba
    D. all would be equally difficult
    B. qponm
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Generally people remember things that they created better than things given to them by others; this is known as the ______ effect.
    A. creativity
    B. referencing
    C. generation
    D. construction
    C. generation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Encoding specificity refers to the finding that people remember things better when:
    A. encoding has been done very slowly and specifically
    B. they are asked very specific questions at retrieval
    C. the cues at retrieval overlap the cues at encoding
    D. encoding and retrieval are done under specified conditions
    C. the cues at retrieval overlap the cues at encoding
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. The most frequently reported mental imagery is _____ imagery.
    A. Visual
    B. Auditory
    C. Olfactory
    D. Tactile
    A. Visual
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. In most situations, humans seem to remember ____ better than any other type of stimuli.
    A. faces
    B. aromas
    C. pictures
    D. rhymes
    A. faces
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Asking people to verbally describe some visual image often leads to
    A. poor verbal descriptions of the visual image
    B. no difference in memory for the visual image
    C. poorer memory for the visual image
    D. improved memory for the visual image
    C. poorer memory for the visual image
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Prosopagnosia refers to a neurological disorder that inhibits the recognition of:
    A. Faces
    B. Pictures
    C. Aromas
    D. Words
    A. Faces
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. When a stimulus item is remembered very well when presented right side up but very poorly when presented upside down, this is referred to as a(n) _____ effect.
    A. Inversion
    B. Rotational
    C. Transformation
    D. Interference
    A. Inversion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. A stimulus item that shows the effect described in Question 15 is a:
    A. word in script
    B. picture
    C. face
    D. printed word
    C. face
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. A person in a TOT state is usually able to
    A. recall the ending sound(s) of the target item
    B. recall the beginning sound(s) of the target item
    C. not recall the target at all
    D. recall the target immediately
    B. recall the beginning sound(s) of the target item
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Which of the following words is most likely to serve as a successful prime for the target word “candy?”
    A. horse
    B. xxxxx
    C. candle
    D. chocolate
    D. chocolate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Priming effects are usually explained by reference to network models employing the concept of:
    A. memory sets
    B. spreading activation
    C. semantic features
    D. k-lines
    B. spreading activation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. A problem for feature theories of semantic organization has been
    a. naming the defining features of a concept
    b. determining how many features are needed to define a concept
    c. finding concrete features
    d. all of the above
    d. all of the above
  21. K-lines refer to semantic organization by
    A. semantic features
    B. frequency of usage
    C. adaptive control
    D. function
    D. function
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. The major difference in information storage between humans and computers is that computers store information as presented while humans
    A. first interpret presented information
    B. store most presented information
    C. wait for suitable presentations
    d. all of the above
    A. first interpret presented information
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Which of the following questions are more likely to be answered quicker by a human than by a computer?
    A. What was the birth date of Martin Luther King?
    B. Humans would be slower for all these questions.
    C. What is the current time in Tokyo?
    D. What street did Adam and Eve live on?
    D. What street did Adam and Eve live on?
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. A similarity between humans and computers is that both:
    A. can develop new strategies
    B. can delete unwanted memories
    C. can expand memory
    D. can perform many tasks at the same time
    D. can perform many tasks at the same time
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. A very important procedure for improving your memory is to:
    A. read a memory book
    B. play memory games
    C. pay attention
    D. buy a computer
    C. pay attention
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. What is DECLARATIVE MEMORY?
    a form of long-term memory
  27. What is DISTINCTIVENESS?
    one factor influencing memory; items which are distinguishable from other items or which are encoded in a way that makes them distinguishable are better remembered
  28. What is ENCODING SPECIFICITY?
    the amount of overlap between cues present both at encoding and at retrieval; more overlap results in better memory
  29. What is EPISODIC MEMORY?
    one type of long-term, declarative memory; memory for the events of one's own life
  30. What is the GENERATION EFFECT?
    one factor influencing memory; items are remembered better when the person was involved in producing them
  31. What is the INVERSION EFFECT?
    the finding that an item is remembered very well when presented right side up or not transformed but poorly when presented upside down or transformed
  32. What are LEVELS OF PROCESSING?
    the degree of semantic or deep processing influences retrieval positively
  33. What is LONG-TERM MEMORY?
    the repository of all encoded experiences and knowledge
  34. What are MNEMONICS?
    special methods designed to improve memory by organizing encoding or retrieval to take advantage of factors which influence memory
  35. What is PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING (PDP)?
    the processing of information in memory at several different levels or locations and at the same time
  36. What is PRIMING?
    the more rapid retrieval of items which are semantically related to an item just presented
  37. What is PROACTIVE INTERFERENCE?
    blockage of memory retrieval by related information learned before the desired information was learned
  38. What is PROSOPAGNOSIA?
    a neurological disorder which results in deficits in the recognition of faces
  39. What is REPRESSION?
    forgetting memories which may cause psychological stress
  40. What is RETROGRADE INTERFERENCE?
    blockage of memory retrieval by related information learned after the desired information was learned
  41. What is the SELF-REFERENCE EFFECT?
    the finding that items that are referenced to one's self are better remembered
  42. What is SEMANTIC MEMORY?
    one type of long-term, declarative memory; memory for general knowledge, such as the meanings of words, not tied to specific life events
  43. What is SENSORY MEMORY?
    memory that holds large amounts of sensory information in veridical form for a very brief period of time; most of this information is lost before further processing can commence
  44. What is the SERIAL POSITION CURVE?
    the finding that the first and last few items in a list of items are remembered better than items in the middle of the list
  45. What is SPREADING ACTIVATION?
    the increased access to items that are semantically related to a presented or a recently processed item
  46. What is STATE-DEPENDENT LEARNING?
    the amount of overlap between internal cues present both at encoding and at retrieval; more overlap results in better memory
  47. What is TRACE DECAY?
    the loss of unused long-term memories
  48. What is the VON RESTORFF EFFECT?
    an example of distinctiveness; items that stand out are better remembered
  49. What is WORKING MEMORY?
    a limited capacity pool of resources used for cognitive processes

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