a set of symbols that's used to convey meaning, and that set of symbols is language or digital code.
any other communication that we do, that doesn't use that set of symbols
a book definition
a personal, more emotional type of meaning
messages are complex, and packed with emotions, information, and tell us about a relationship and what's going on.
we have rules for messages, rules that influence the way we talk to people.
manage when and how, where and what is appropriate to talk about.
helps us find what messages mean in a particular situation.
there are a lot of ways to same something, whether using complex words or using a simple phrase. Our language can sometimes not be concrete and can be intangible.
vary in abstraction
we expect people to be polite, especially in relationships
how our messages include everyone or exclude certain people.
messages can be direct and straightforward, or indirect and a little more confusing.
standing up for yourself, letting people knwo what you think, in a very straightforward way.
the words we choose to use, influence the perceptions of others.
we can communicate hypothetically, verbally, not nonverbally. Our language has different tenses
in order to know our relationship status, we have to communicate verbally
Steps to a conversation:
2. Topic priming
3. Conversation heart
4. Preliminary Processing
looks at body position/movements, facial movements etc...
how we touch one another.
considered nonverbal communication, the way we dress ourselves
relates to physical appearance, personal objects that we use/wear that communicate things that are important to us.
looks at space, looks at the distance we stand between ourselves and another person.
looking at time, how we value time, what time means in a relationship
voice changes, how our vocal quality changes the meaning of the message
a form of nonverbal communication. There's meaning even though we're silent.
the way that verbal and nonverbal communications work together. We communicate both verbally and nonverbally at the same time and very rarely do we just communicate verbally or just nonverbally.
we can use nonverbal communication to emphasize a part of our verbal message.
our nonverbal and verbal message complement one another.
it is possible for our nonverbal to contradict one another. We do this more times that we realize.
we use our nonverbal as a way to control our situation. You can physically more someone.
verbal and nonverbal are repeating one antoher
there are times when we substitute nonverbal communication for verbal communication.
nonverbal communication is not more believable than verbal communication
use some sort of ambiguous statement to throw someone off the truth
overstate the truth and add to the story
when we underplay the truth
a system consisting of verbal systems and grammar that enables us to engage in meaning making with others.
are the words or vocabulary that makes up a language
refers to a set of rules dicting how words can be combined to make a meaningful message.
putting our thoughts into meaningful language
developing a thought based on hearing language
able to be seen, smelled, tasted, touched or heard
the thing a verbal symbol represents
not able to be seen, smelled, tasted, touched or heard
argues that when we compare 2 unlike things in a figure of speech, we are unconsciously influenced by the comparison
the ability to move up and down the ladder of abstraction from a specific to general and vice versa
process of abstraction
refers to how people talk when they do not want others to completely understand their intentions.
a word or phrase that has an understood meaning within a culture, but that meaning doesn't come from exact translation.
consistis of words and phrases that are used for interpersonal contact only and are not meant to be translated directly word for word.
switching back and forth between languages in the same conversation
a group of people who share norms about how to speak, what words to use, and when, where, why to speak.
says that cultures are held together by their common use of symbols and that things do no exist in a objective form; they exist based on cultural agreement about them.
argues that words determine our ability to perceive and think
which states that language influences our thinking but doesn't determine it.
a statement referring to the relationship between language and perception
refers to the ease with which language can express a though
a theory that asserts that sex operates in the same way as culture in establishing different rules, norms, and language patterns for men & women.
the tendency to speak and respond to someone today the same way we did in the past, not recognizing that people and relationships change over time.
the tendency to use "either-or" language and speak of the world in extremes
the tendency to respond to words or lables for things as though they were the things themselves
when language fails its users by letting some experiences and ideas go unnamed
experiences that are not named
they that explain what happens to peoplw whose experiences are not well represented in verbal symbols and who have trouble articulating their thoughts and feelings verbally because their language doesn't give them adequate vocabulary.
muted group theory
language that is demeaning to one sex
refers to the rule in English grammar, that requires the masculine pronoun he to function generically when the subject of the sentence is of unknown gender
words that include the word man, but that are supposed to operate generically to include women.
when language offends one group, including racist language and slurs.
a response that acknowledges and supports another.
occurs when someone feels ignored and disregarded.
meakins acknowledging the viewpoints of those with whom you interact