What percent of all organisms that have ever lived is this?
Define classification. What is another term for classification?
A classification is a grouping of organisms based on similarities. Taxon
What do you call scientists that study classification?
Classifying organisms makes naming organisms more _____________ and _____________.
Accurate and uniform
Classifying prevents ____________ or inaccurate naming.
What language is used for scientific naming?
Sometimes, scientific names may be ___________ instead of Latin.
Why don't scientists around the world just use more simple, common names for organisms?
To evade confusion
Who was the first taxonomist and what two groups did he place organism in?
Aristotle divided orgamisms into plants and animals.
How did Aristotle subdivide his two groups?
his subdivisions were via habitat
Who was first to use Latin for scientific naming?
John Ray the botanist
What was the problem with Ray's names?
They were very long to describe all details of a plant or animal
What 18th century taxonomist developed the naming system still used today?
How did Linnaeus group his organisms?
Genus and species
Who is the "father of taxonomy"?
What is Linnaeus's naming system called?
Explain binomial nomenclature.
It uses 2 nomaes (obvious) genus and species
How do scientific names appear in print?
Underlined, capitalized genus NOT species, and all italicized
Give an example of a common and scientific name for an animal.
Where can you find the rules for naming organisms?
International Code for Binomial Nomenclature
All scientific names must be approved by ________________ ______________.
International Naming Congresses
What is a taxon? What is plural for taxon?
A taxon is a classification plural form taxa
There is a ______________ of groups that goes from the broadest grouping to the most _____________ grouping. Name the 8 taxon in order from broadest to most specific.
•Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species
What is the NEWEST and BROADEST taxon?
Instead of the taxon phylum, what other taxon is used for plants at this level?
What is the most specific taxon? Write the sentence used to help remember the 8 most important taxonomic levels.
King Phillip Came Over For Gooseberry Soup
How many domains are there?
Name the 3 Domains.
Archaea, Eubacteria, and Eukarya
What are the main characteristics of Archaea and Eubacteria?
What are the main characteristics of the Domain Eukarya?
Nucleus membrane-bound organelles
What Domain of organisms probably evolved first?
Where do Archaea live? Give some examples.
Harsh environments. Sewage treatmentplants and thermal vents
Name an Archaean.
Where are eubacteria found?
Some bacteria cause ______________ but many act as decomposers & are important to the ______________.
Some members of eubacteria live in the __________ of animals.
The Domain Eukarya is divided into how many kingdoms?
List the 4 kingdoms of Eukarya and tell what organisms are in each group.
•Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
Which 2 kingdoms contain all multicellular members?
Plantae and animalia
List the main characteristics of the Kingdom Protista.
Mostly unicellular and some are autotrophic, while others are heterotrophic
Microscopic organisms found in pond water are most likely in the kingdom _______________.
All members of the Kingdom Fungi are _____________ except for unicellular ____________.
What type of heterotrophic organism are fungi?
Explain what it means to be an absorptive heterotrophic.
Digest food outside of the body
The cell walls of fungi are made of ______________.
Members of the kingdom Plantae are all ________________ and _____________.
multicellular and autotrophic
What do plants use as their energy to make food?
Name the food making process of plants.
Plant cell walls are made of _______________.
Members of the Kingdom Animalia contain all of the multicellular _____________ on Earth.
Animals are ______________ heterotrophs that feed on __________ or other __________.
Define ingestive heterotroph.
Digest food inside the body after having consumed it
A Genera may contain a number of different ___________.
What Genera is an exception to this?
Which Kingdom has the largest number of different kinds of organisms?
What three groups are in the plant kingdom?
Algea, Byrophytes, and vascular plants
List three examples of things used as a basis for modern taxonomy.
Homologous structures, DNA, and embryo
What are homologous structures?
Stuctures that have similar structure, but different uses.
At the molecular level, similarities in ___________, __________, or the __________ __________ sequence of proteins can be a basis for grouping organisms together.
Give an example of homologous structures show similarities among organisms in the same taxon.
Bats, Whales, Cheetah, and Humans all have similar front legs or arms. Although Bats' are used for flying, Whales' are for swimming, Cheetahs' are used for running and Humans' are used for balance/grabbing objects.
Name 5 organisms that have similar embryonic development.
Fish, human, pig, chicken, and turtle
To what taxon do these organisms belong?
They are all animalia amd vertebrate
What is a cladogram?
Diagram showing how organisms are related based on shared, derived characteristics such as feathers, hair, or scales
When using a dichotomous key, you should make sure you ___________ both characteristics and either ____________ the organism OR go to ____________ set of characteristics.