Chapter 17

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Chapter 17
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2010-02-16 06:49:01
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  1. How many known species are there?
    13 billion
  2. What percent of all organisms that have ever lived is this?
    5 percent
  3. Define classification. What is another term for classification?
    A classification is a grouping of organisms based on similarities. Taxon
  4. What do you call scientists that study classification?
    Taxonomist
  5. Classifying organisms makes naming organisms more _____________ and _____________.
    Accurate and uniform
  6. Classifying prevents ____________ or inaccurate naming.
    misnomers
  7. What language is used for scientific naming?
    Latin
  8. Sometimes, scientific names may be ___________ instead of Latin.
    Greek
  9. Why don't scientists around the world just use more simple, common names for organisms?
    To evade confusion
  10. Who was the first taxonomist and what two groups did he place organism in?
    Aristotle divided orgamisms into plants and animals.
  11. How did Aristotle subdivide his two groups?
    his subdivisions were via habitat
  12. Who was first to use Latin for scientific naming?
    John Ray the botanist
  13. What was the problem with Ray's names?
    They were very long to describe all details of a plant or animal
  14. What 18th century taxonomist developed the naming system still used today?
    Carolus Linnaeus
  15. How did Linnaeus group his organisms?
    Genus and species
  16. Who is the "father of taxonomy"?
    Linnaeus
  17. What is Linnaeus's naming system called?
    Binomial nomenclature
  18. Explain binomial nomenclature.
    It uses 2 nomaes (obvious) genus and species
  19. How do scientific names appear in print?
    Underlined, capitalized genus NOT species, and all italicized
  20. Give an example of a common and scientific name for an animal.
    Ursus arctos
  21. Where can you find the rules for naming organisms?
    International Code for Binomial Nomenclature
  22. All scientific names must be approved by ________________ ______________.
    International Naming Congresses
  23. What is a taxon? What is plural for taxon?
    A taxon is a classification plural form taxa
  24. There is a ______________ of groups that goes from the broadest grouping to the most _____________ grouping. Name the 8 taxon in order from broadest to most specific.
    hierarchy/specific

    •Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species
  25. What is the NEWEST and BROADEST taxon?
    Domain
  26. Instead of the taxon phylum, what other taxon is used for plants at this level?
    Division
  27. What is the most specific taxon? Write the sentence used to help remember the 8 most important taxonomic levels.
    • Species
    • King Phillip Came Over For Gooseberry Soup
  28. How many domains are there?
    Three
  29. Name the 3 Domains.
    Archaea, Eubacteria, and Eukarya
  30. What are the main characteristics of Archaea and Eubacteria?
    Unicellular prokaryotes
  31. What are the main characteristics of the Domain Eukarya?
    Nucleus membrane-bound organelles
  32. What Domain of organisms probably evolved first?
    Archaea
  33. Where do Archaea live? Give some examples.
    Harsh environments. Sewage treatmentplants and thermal vents
  34. Name an Archaean.
    Methanosarcina mazei
  35. Where are eubacteria found?
    Everywhere
  36. Some bacteria cause ______________ but many act as decomposers & are important to the ______________.
    Disease/environment
  37. Some members of eubacteria live in the __________ of animals.
    intestines
  38. The Domain Eukarya is divided into how many kingdoms?
    4
  39. List the 4 kingdoms of Eukarya and tell what organisms are in each group.
  40. •Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
  41. Which 2 kingdoms contain all multicellular members?
    Plantae and animalia
  42. List the main characteristics of the Kingdom Protista.
    Mostly unicellular and some are autotrophic, while others are heterotrophic
  43. Microscopic organisms found in pond water are most likely in the kingdom _______________.
    Protista
  44. All members of the Kingdom Fungi are _____________ except for unicellular ____________.
    Multicellular/yeast
  45. What type of heterotrophic organism are fungi?
    Absorptive
  46. Explain what it means to be an absorptive heterotrophic.
    Digest food outside of the body
  47. The cell walls of fungi are made of ______________.
    chitin
  48. Members of the kingdom Plantae are all ________________ and _____________.
    multicellular and autotrophic
  49. What do plants use as their energy to make food?
    sunlight
  50. Name the food making process of plants.
    Photosynthesis
  51. Plant cell walls are made of _______________.
    cellulose
  52. Members of the Kingdom Animalia contain all of the multicellular _____________ on Earth.
    heterotrophs
  53. Animals are ______________ heterotrophs that feed on __________ or other __________.
    ingestive/plants/animals
  54. Define ingestive heterotroph.
    Digest food inside the body after having consumed it
  55. A Genera may contain a number of different ___________.
    species
  56. What Genera is an exception to this?
    Homo
  57. Which Kingdom has the largest number of different kinds of organisms?
    Animalia
  58. What three groups are in the plant kingdom?
    Algea, Byrophytes, and vascular plants
  59. List three examples of things used as a basis for modern taxonomy.
    Homologous structures, DNA, and embryo
  60. What are homologous structures?
    Stuctures that have similar structure, but different uses.
  61. At the molecular level, similarities in ___________, __________, or the __________ __________ sequence of proteins can be a basis for grouping organisms together.
    DNA/RNA/amino acids
  62. Give an example of homologous structures show similarities among organisms in the same taxon.
    Bats, Whales, Cheetah, and Humans all have similar front legs or arms. Although Bats' are used for flying, Whales' are for swimming, Cheetahs' are used for running and Humans' are used for balance/grabbing objects.
  63. Name 5 organisms that have similar embryonic development.
    Fish, human, pig, chicken, and turtle
  64. To what taxon do these organisms belong?
    They are all animalia amd vertebrate
  65. What is a cladogram?
    Diagram showing how organisms are related based on shared, derived characteristics such as feathers, hair, or scales
  66. When using a dichotomous key, you should make sure you ___________ both characteristics and either ____________ the organism OR go to ____________ set of characteristics.
    read/identify/another

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