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2011-03-03 12:03:11

Leadership 405
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  1. Trait Leaders
    individuals have innate or inborn characteristics that make them leaders
  2. assigned leaders
    leaders because of their formal position in an organization
  3. emergent leaders
    become leaders through the way other people in the organization show support and accept that individual's behavior.
  4. Referent powers
    • identified by liking of that leaders.
    • Personal power
  5. expert power
    • based on followers percptions of the leader's competence.
    • personal power
  6. legitimate power
    • have status or formal job authority.
    • position power
  7. reward power
    • derived from the capacity to provide rewards to others
    • position power
  8. coercive power
    • derived from having the capacity to penalize or punish others.
    • position power
  9. position power
    like assigned leadership. based on assigned title
  10. trait approach
    • has it's roots in leadership theory that suggested that certain people were born with special traits that made them great leaders.
    • because no specific traits could be found, researchers focused on studying interactions between leaders and their context instead of focusing on traits.
    • focuses on leaders, not on the followers or the situation.
  11. characteristics of 'trait' leaders
    intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity and sociability.
  12. emotional intelligence- trait leadership
    leaders who are sensitive to their emotions and to the impact of their emotions on others may be leaders that are more effective.
    • emphasizes the competencies of leaders.
    • focuses on learned skills that can be learned and improved. places leadership available to everyone.
  14. 3 skills approach
    • technical, human and conceptual.
    • technical and human more important at lower levels of management.
    • middle managers- all 3 skills are important
    • higher level- conceptual and human skills are more important
  15. Style approach
    • focuses on what leaders do, rather than on what leaders are.
    • suggest that leaders engage in two types of behaviors: task and relationship
    • combining the two is the central focus.
  16. Style approach
    heavy emphasis on task and job requirements, less emphasis on people.
  17. Style approach
    country club management
    low concern for task accomplishment coupled with a high concern for interpersonal relations.
  18. Style approach
    impoverished management
    leaders are unconcerned with both task and with interpersonal relationships. goes through the motions of being a leader but acts uninvolved.
  19. Style approach
    middle of the road management
    leaders who are compromisers, who have an intermediate concern for the task and an intermediate concern for the people who do the task.
  20. Style approach
    team management
    places a strong emphasis on both task and interpersonal relationships.
  21. situational approach
    • suggest how leaders can become effective in many different types of organizational settings involving a wide variety of organizational tasks.
    • effective leadership occurs when the leader can accurately diagnosse the development level of subordinates in a task and exhibit the prescribed leadership that matches that situation.
  22. situational approach
    S1 leadership style
    directing style
    high directive-low supportive
  23. situational approach
    S2 leadership style
    coaching style
    high directive-high suportive
  24. situational approach
    S3 leadership style
    supporting approach
    high supportive- low directive
  25. situational approach
    S4 leadership style
    low supportive-low directing style.
  26. team leadership
    • in this approach the critical function of the leadership is to help the group accomplish it's goals by monitoring and diagnosing the group and taking the requisite action.
    • model:
    • what type of intervention should be taken (monitoring or action taking)?
    • at what level should the intervention be used (internal or external)?
    • what leadership function should be implemented to improve functioning?
  27. psychodynamic approach
    • based on assessments of the personalities of leaders and followers.
    • encourages people to be aware of their own personality types and those of the people with whom they work in order to better understand their own behavior and responses they get from others.
    • encourages awareness and thereby reduces the degree of manipulation and control by the leader.
    • no training because there are no skills or behaviors to learn.