EMT-I

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abnrml101
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7047
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EMT-I
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2010-02-16 14:19:08
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SECTION 1 FINAL
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SECTION 1 FINAL
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  1. HISTORY OF EMS PRE-20TH CENTURY
    • 1700 BC: CODE OF HAMMURABI
    • 1790: AMBULANCES VOLANTES
    • 1869: FIRST AMBULANCE SERVICE
  2. 20TH CENTURY EMS
    • WW1 &WW2: SOLDIERS TRANSPORTED TO HOSPITALS
    • KOREAN WAR: HELICOPTER EVAC, MASH UNITS
  3. WHAT IS THE WHITE PAPER
    • 1966: ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISABILITY: THE NEGLECTED DISEASE OF MODERN SOCIETY
    • THE US DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION WAS CREATED
  4. WHAT ARE THE 14 REQUIREMENTS OF THE EMS SYSTEM ACT OF 1973
    • INTEGRATION OF HEALTH SERVICES
    • EMS RESEARCH
    • LEGISLATION AND REGULATION
    • SYSTEM FINANCE
    • HUMAN RESOURCES
    • MEDICAL DIRECTION
    • EDUCATION SYSTEMS
    • PUBLIC EDUCATION
    • PREVENTION
    • PUBLIC ACCESS
    • COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
    • CLINICAL CARE
    • INFORMATION SYSTEMS
    • EVALUATION
  5. WHAT ARE THE 5 LEVELS OF PROVIDERS IN THE EMS SYSTEM?
    • DISPATCHER
    • FIRST RESPONDER
    • EMT BASIC
    • EMT INTERMEDIATE
    • EMT PARAMEDIC
  6. WHAT ARE THE PRIMARY RESPONSES OF A PARAMEDIC?
    • PREPERATION
    • RESPONSE
    • SCENE MANAGEMENT
    • PT ASSESMENT AND CARE
    • MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSITION
    • PT TRANSFER
    • DOCUMENTATION
    • RETURN TO SERVICE
  7. WHAT ARE THE DUTIES OF A MEDICAL DIRECTOR?
    • DEUCATING AND TRAINING PERSONEL
    • PARTICIPATING IN PERSONNEL SELECTION
    • EQUIPMENT SELECTION
    • DEVELOPING CLINICAL PROTOCOLS
    • ASSISTING IN QI
    • DIRECT INPUT INTO PATIENT CARE
    • INTERFACING BETWEEN EMS AND OTHER AGENCIES
    • SERVING AS EMS ADVOCATE
    • SERVING AS MEDICAL CONCIENCE
  8. WHAT ARE THE 5 TYPES OF RESEARCH?
    • DESCRIPTIVE
    • EXPERIMENTAL
    • PROSPECTIVE
    • RETROSPECTIVE
    • CROSS-SECTIONAL
  9. WHAT ARE THE 4 COMPONETS OF WELL-BEING
    • PHYSICAL
    • MENTAL
    • EMOTIONAL
    • SPIRITUAL
  10. WHAT IS STRESS
    A NONSPECIFIC RESPONSE OF THE BODY TO A DEMAND MADE UPON IT
  11. WHAT ARE THE 2 TYPES OF STRESS
    • EUSTRESS: POSITIVE STRESS
    • DISTRESS: NEGATIVE STRESS
  12. WHAT IS AN ALARM REACTION
    • THE FIRST STAGE
    • BEGINS WITH A QUICK ALERT RESPONSE
    • SUDDEN STIMULATION OF THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
  13. HOW CAN YOU COPE WITH STRESS?
    • CONTROLL BREATHING
    • REFRAMING
    • PROGRESSIVE RELAXATION
  14. RESPONSES OF PATIENTS TO STRESS
    • FEAR
    • ANXIETY
    • DEPRESSION
    • ANGER
    • CONFUSION
  15. PATIENT DEFENSE MECHANISMS
    • DENIAL
    • REGRESSION
    • PROJECTION
    • DISPLACEMENT
  16. RESPONSE OF FAMILY FRIENDS AND BYSTANDERS TO STRESS
    • ANXIOUS
    • PANICKY
    • ANGRY
    • DEMANDING
  17. RESPONSE IN MULTI CASUALTY INCIDENTS TO STRESS
    • ANXIETY
    • BLIND PANIC
    • DEPRESSION
    • OVERREACTION
    • CONVERSION HYSTARIA
  18. SYMPTOMS OF IMPENDING BURNOUT
    • CHRONIC FATIGUE AND IRRITABILITY
    • CYNICAL, NEGATIVE ATTITUDE
    • LACK OF DESIRE TO REPORT TO WORK
    • EMOTIONAL INSTABILITY
    • CHANGING IN SLEEP PATTERNS
    • FEELING OVERWHELMED OR HELPLESS
    • LOSS OF INTREST IN HOBBIES
    • DECREASE ABILITY TO CONCENTRATE
    • DECLINING HEALTH
    • TIGHTNESS IN MUSCLES
    • OVEREATING OR SMOKING
    • ABUSING DRUGS OR ALCOHOL
  19. 5 STEPS OF GRIEVING
    • DENIAL
    • ANGER
    • BARGAINING
    • DEPRESSION
    • ACCEPTANCE
  20. The 4 Es of injury prevention
    • –Enforcement
    • –Education
    • –Engineering/environment
    • –Economic incentives
  21. WHAT ARE THE 2 INJURY TYPES
    • •Intentional
    • –Refer to injuries resulting from purposeful human action, whether directed at oneself or othersAssault and suicide are included in intentional injuries.

    • •Unintentional
    • –Refers to injuries that were unplanned
    • •Injury occurs in a short period of time—seconds to minutes.
    • •Harmful outcome was not sought.
    • •The outcome was the result of one of the forms of physical energy in the environment or normal body functions being blocked by external means.
  22. The five steps to developing a prevention program:
    • –Conduct a community assessment.
    • –Define the injury problem.
    • –Set goals and objectives.
    • –Plan and test interventions.
    • –Implement and evaluate interventions.
  23. defamation
    • •Intentionally making a false statement through written or verbal communication that injures a person’s good name or reputation
    • –Libel is making a false statement in writing.
    • –Slander is verbally making a false statement.
  24. hippa
    • •Provides stringent privacy requirements for patient information
    • –Medical information can be disclosed only if it is necessary for a patient’s treatment or for payment or medical/billing operations.
    • •Privacy officer
    • –Responsible for ensuring all protected health information (PHI)
  25. GOOD SAMARITAN LAW
    • •Provides immunity from liability to any member of the community who stops and helps at the scene of an emergency
    • –Initially passed to encourage the public to help at emergency scenes

    • •Provides some protection for EMS personnel who are off duty and assist at an emergency
    • •Emergency care must be given free of charge.
    • •Requires that persons responding to an emergency do all they can, within their knowledge, to support and sustain life and to prevent further injury
  26. WHAT ARE ETHICS
    : the philosophy of right and wrong
  27. what is morality?
    • •code of conduct defined by
    • –Society
    • –Religion
    • –Person
  28. what is medical ethics
    • •Also called bioethics
    • •Discusses and debates the health care of human beings, your patients
  29. CODE OF ETHICS
    • •Oath of Geneva
    • –Issued in 1948
    • –World Medical Association
    • •Code of Ethics for EMTs
    • –Issued in 1978National Association of EMTs
  30. patient autonomy
    • •Patients have the right to direct their own care.
    • •Patients have the right to decide how their end of life care should be provided.
    • •Patients have the right to decide what and when care should be stopped.
  31. the human body
    • –Made up of cells, tissues, and organs
    • –Function in a constantly changing microenvironment
    • –Biology
    • –Pathophysiology
    • –Etiology
  32. what is a cell
    • •Basic self-sustaining unit of the human body
    • –Differentiation
    • •Three main components
    • –Cell membrane
    • –Cytoplasm
    • –Nucleus
  33. cell membrane
    • –Consists of fat and protein
    • –Surrounds the cell and protects the internal components within the cytoplasm
  34. organells
    • –Found in the cytoplasm
    • –Operate in a cooperative and organized fashion to maintain the life of the cell
    • –Ribosomes
    • –Endoplasmic reticulum
    • –Golgi complex
    • –Lysosomes
    • –Peroxisomes Mitochondria
  35. nucleus
    • –Contains genetic material and the nucleoli
    • –Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
    • –Nuclear envelope
    • –Embedded in the cytoplasm
  36. 4 types of tissue
    • •Epithelial
    • •Connective
    • •Muscle
    • •Nerve
  37. epithelial
    • –Absorption of nutrients in the intestines
    • –Secretion of various body substances
    • –Endothelial cells
  38. connective
    • –Binds the other types of tissue together
    • –Extracellular matrix
    • –Collagen
    • –Bone and cartilage
    • –Adipose tissue
  39. muscle
    • –Characterized by its ability to contract
    • –Enclosed by fascia
    • –Overlies the framework of the skeleton
    • –Classified in terms of structure and function
    • –Three types
    • •Skeletal muscle
    • •Cardiac muscle
    • •Smooth muscle
  40. nerve
    • –Characterized by its ability to transmit nerve impulses
    • –Peripheral nerves
    • –Neurons
    • –Dendrites
    • –AxonsSynapse
  41. •Ligands
    • •Molecules either produced by the body or given as a drug –Bind any receptor leading to any reaction
    • •Hormones
    • –Endocrine hormones
    • –Exocrine hormones
    • –Paracrine hormones
    • –Autocrine hormone
    • •Neurotransmitters
    • •Electrolytes
  42. •Adaptations in Cells and Tissues
    • •Exposed to adverse conditions
    • –Process of adaptation in an attempt to protect themselves from injury
    • –Atrophy
    • –Hypertrophy
    • –Hyperplasia
    • –Dysplasia
    • –Metaplasia
  43. •Distribution of Body Fluids
    • •Environmental changes
    • –Due to aging, exercise, pregnancy, medications, disease, and injury
    • –Body fluids contain
    • •Water
    • •Sodium
    • •Chloride
    • •Potassium
    • •Calcium
    • •Phosphorus
    • •Magnesium
  44. •Distribution of Body Fluids
    •Total body weight
    • –Approximately 50% to 70% is fluid.
    • –Average male is 60% fluid.
    • –Average female is 50% fluid.
    • –Intracellular fluid
    • –Extracellular fluid
    • –Interstitial fluid
    • –Intravascular fluid

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