Section 8.1

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Author:
ANNichols
ID:
70512
Filename:
Section 8.1
Updated:
2011-03-03 17:31:32
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Cerebral Vascular Accidents
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Description:
Section 8.1 CVA
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  1. A CVA is
    commonly referred to as a stroke and results from restricted blood supply to the brain; causing cell damage and impaired neurologic function.
  2. A variety of deficits are possible with CVA:
    • impairments of motor, sensory, mental, perceptual and language function.
    • paralysis (hemiplegia) or weekness (hemiparesis
    • strokes range from slight to sever, temporary or permanent.
  3. Strokes are the ________ leading cause of death in the US.
    third
  4. Several causes may result in vascular insufficiency, leading to a storke. The most common causes include:
    • thrombus
    • embolism
    • hemorrhage secondary to aneurysm
    • developmental abnormalities
  5. Thrombi result from
    platelet adhesion and aggregation
  6. A thrombus is
    a blood clot that forms within the living vascular system and is a slow process
  7. Thrombi lead to
    ischemia or occlusion of an artery, w/ resulting infarction or tissue death
  8. Thrombi also can become
    dislodged and travel to another site in the form of an artery-to-artery embolus
  9. Cerebral emboli (CE) are
    • traveling bits of matter such as;
    • thrombi
    • tissue
    • fat
    • which are released into the bloodstream and travel to the cerebral arteries, producitn occlusion and infarction.
  10. Cerebral emboli (CE) are
    commonly associated w/ cardiovascular disease
  11. A hemorrhage occurs from
    abnormal bleeding owing to rupture of a blood vessel such as an aneurysm and can cause trauma to the brain
  12. A transient ischemic attack (TIA) refers to
    the temporary interruption of blood supply to the brain
  13. TIA symptoms include
    limited neurologic deficits lasting for only a few minutes to several hours and usually resolve completely w/i 24 hours
  14. TIA may result from a number of different factors including
    • occlusive attacks
    • emboli
    • reduced crebral perfusion
    • cerebrovascular spasm
  15. a history of TIAs is a
    • major clinical significance as a precursor to both cerebral infarction and myocardial infarction
    • approx 30% of pts w/ major stroke symptosm and/or vascular disease, experience a history of TIAs
  16. Atherothrombotic brain infacrction is
    the most common cause of stroke accounting for 60% of all strokes
  17. Cerebral embolus accounts for
    15% of strokes
  18. subarachnoid hemorrhage account for
    15% of storkes
  19. intracerebral hemorrhage accounts for
    10% of strokes
  20. fatality rate of initial strokes varies by type of stroke w/ an overall rate of
    22%
  21. Most spontaneous neurologic recovery occurs w/i the first __________ after the initial insult
    • 6 months
    • paralysis tha treamins severe after this time is not likely to improve.
  22. Neural plasticity
    the brains ability to adabt after an injury or insult
  23. Major risk factors for the development of a stroke are
    • hypertension
    • impaired cardiac function
  24. Signs and symptoms of CVA if in the carotid system are
    • weakness
    • heaviness
    • slowness of movement
    • affects limbs and/or face
    • numbness
    • parasthesias
    • visual loss
  25. Signs and symptoms of CVA in the vestibular system are
    • vertigo
    • ataxia
    • diplopia
    • dysarthria
    • motor and sensory changes

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