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A CVA is
commonly referred to as a stroke and results from restricted blood supply to the brain; causing cell damage and impaired neurologic function.
A variety of deficits are possible with CVA:
- impairments of motor, sensory, mental, perceptual and language function.
- paralysis (hemiplegia) or weekness (hemiparesis
- strokes range from slight to sever, temporary or permanent.
Strokes are the ________ leading cause of death in the US.
Several causes may result in vascular insufficiency, leading to a storke. The most common causes include:
- hemorrhage secondary to aneurysm
- developmental abnormalities
Thrombi result from
platelet adhesion and aggregation
A thrombus is
a blood clot that forms within the living vascular system and is a slow process
Thrombi lead to
ischemia or occlusion of an artery, w/ resulting infarction or tissue death
Thrombi also can become
dislodged and travel to another site in the form of an artery-to-artery embolus
Cerebral emboli (CE) are
- traveling bits of matter such as;
- which are released into the bloodstream and travel to the cerebral arteries, producitn occlusion and infarction.
Cerebral emboli (CE) are
commonly associated w/ cardiovascular disease
A hemorrhage occurs from
abnormal bleeding owing to rupture of a blood vessel such as an aneurysm and can cause trauma to the brain
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) refers to
the temporary interruption of blood supply to the brain
TIA symptoms include
limited neurologic deficits lasting for only a few minutes to several hours and usually resolve completely w/i 24 hours
TIA may result from a number of different factors including
- occlusive attacks
- reduced crebral perfusion
- cerebrovascular spasm
a history of TIAs is a
- major clinical significance as a precursor to both cerebral infarction and myocardial infarction
- approx 30% of pts w/ major stroke symptosm and/or vascular disease, experience a history of TIAs
Atherothrombotic brain infacrction is
the most common cause of stroke accounting for 60% of all strokes
Cerebral embolus accounts for
15% of strokes
subarachnoid hemorrhage account for
15% of storkes
intracerebral hemorrhage accounts for
10% of strokes
fatality rate of initial strokes varies by type of stroke w/ an overall rate of
Most spontaneous neurologic recovery occurs w/i the first __________ after the initial insult
- 6 months
- paralysis tha treamins severe after this time is not likely to improve.
the brains ability to adabt after an injury or insult
Major risk factors for the development of a stroke are
- impaired cardiac function
Signs and symptoms of CVA if in the carotid system are
- slowness of movement
- affects limbs and/or face
- visual loss
Signs and symptoms of CVA in the vestibular system are
- motor and sensory changes
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