Card Set Information
human development family studies development adolescence adolescent development
Family, peer, and school contexts for adolescents.
What are the four structural issues confronting contemporary American families?
economic stress and povery
What are some of the distinguising features of African American families?
family roles are more flexible
less gender specific
What are some of the distinguising features of Latino families?
father = head of house
differentiated gender roles
What are some of the distinguising features of Native American families?
high dropout rates
high mortality rates
lowest life expectancy
What are some of the distinguising features of European American families?
low dropout rates
do not depend on family as much
What are two dimensions of parenting?
responsiveness and demandingness
What are four styles of parenting?
What contributions do adolescents bring to the parent-adolescent relationship?
new thoughts and experiences
What is important to know about parents and middle age as it affects adolescents?
adolescents are striving for independence while parents are worried about losing them and getting older
adolescents are in their prime while parents are declining
What are some key aspects of Family Systems Theory?
interdependence- emotional mobile
rules- explicit (very clear) and implicit (unspoken)
communication styles- verybal, nonverbal, and contextual
boundaries- open (more flexible) and closed (rigid)
How does divorce affect adolescent development?
how bad the marital conflict is
change in parenting
gender (boys struggle more than girls)
age (older kids handle it better than younger)
problems arise later
result of less monitoring
How does remarriage affect adolescent development?
kids may act out
step-parent's involvement in parenting (the less the better)
How does maternal employment affect adolescent development?
middle and upper class kids struggle more
boys struggle more
better when mother wants to work
How do economic stress and poverty affect adolescent development?
struggle more at school
girls more likely to think about marriage early
boys don't respect dad
Promotive parenting strategy
attempt to strengthen child's competence through more activities inside and outside the home
Restrictive parenting strategy
attempt to minimize exposure to dangerous neighborhood
What are shared evironmental influences?
nongenetic influences that make individuals living in the same family similar to each other
What are nonshared environmental influences?
the nongenetic influences in individuals's lives that make them different from people they live with
What is the effect of poverty or financial hardship on parenting styles?
more likely to be authoritarian
close, small, personal relationships
less demanding with respect to conformity
What purpose do friendships serve during adolescence?
What are the friendship pattern differences between boys and girls?
boys- shared activities
What are the four functions of peer groups?
social interaction skills
clarify moral standards and values
What changes in society have caused the peer group to become more important in America?
the baby boom
same age, sex, and race
up to 12 people
take on powerful, exclusionary approach
3 or more cliques together
boys and girls mixed
How does the function of peer groups change over the course of adolescence?
early- trust and emotional sharing is important (especially with girls), intense, dating (how girls climb up social ladder)
late- intensity decreases, intimacy increases, boys continue to maintain relationships through shared activities
How do peers affect adolescent identity?
reference group (source of social insight)
What demographic variables affect clique formation?
Why is popularity important?
popular- good in social situations, behaviorally appropriate, confident
rejected- hard to be around (conceited, insensitive, crude), more likely to be boys
neglected- shy, inhibited, forgotten
How is physical appearance important?
the separation of boys and girls into different cliques, common during late childhood and early adolescence
What are the effects of being unsupervised after school during adolescence?
increased chance of bullying, alcohol/drug use, and sex
What are the relevant historical changes in the US related to schools today?
What are the three basic areas of research regarding schools as developmental contexts?
How would you characterize research related to the social ecology approach?
how different aspects of school affects students
What is important to know about school size?
smaller schools tend to be better
What are considered positive characteristics of a good teacher?
spend time on a task
allow student participation
What are the different ways in which traking affects students?
extreme separation and segregation
more attention to smarter students
How do teachers affect differences in boys and girls in school?
girls are expected to be good in reading and bad at math
boys are expected to be good at math and science and bad at reading
What is the difference between middle schools and jr. high schools?
middle schools are more like elementary schools with more adult support
What is the difference betwee public and private schools for students?
private schools can choose the students they enroll
What do we know about minority students today in school?
dropout rates have decreased
What is cooperative learing and how is it a useful tool in the classroom?
students work together with different abilities
students with higher abilities help those with lower abilities
What are the five characteristics of good schools?
atmosphere of quality education
well integrated in community
positive classroom atmosphere
What are the four areas of research interest for researchers using the Life Course approach?
school transitions, peer network, dropout, family
How does class size affect adolescents in school?
it generally doesn't
the idea that individuals' behavior is influenced by others' expectations for them
some types of learning require more cognitive processing than others
What are the factors that positively affect school climates for adolescents?
high student involvement
strong bonds with teachers
promoting cooperation instead of competition
the interpersonal resources available to an adolescent or family
What impact do teacher expectations have on student performance?
the higher the expectations the better they do
the lower the expectations the worse they do