Antianemia Drugs S1M2

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lancesadams
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70544
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Antianemia Drugs S1M2
Updated:
2011-04-16 23:56:55
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Pharmacology
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Pharmacology
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  1. Why is the bio-availability of iron low
    It is not very soluble in physiological Ph
  2. Where is most of the iron found in the body
    In the Hemoglobin 60-70%
  3. What are some of the important functions that iron participates in
    • Cellular respiration
    • Krebs cycle
    • Electron Transport chain
    • Lipid metabolism
    • Gene regulation
    • DNA regulation and repair
  4. What is the recommended dietary allowance of iron for adults
    • 18mg for women
    • 8 mg for men
  5. What is the difference in the iron in meat and the iron in other organic substances during digestion
    • The meat is more efficiently absorbed because it doesn't have to be disassociated from the Hb and myoglobin forms
    • Non heme foods must be reduced before use
  6. What is the enzyme that reduces iron
    Ferroreductase to the ferrous form
  7. Where is iron absorbed
    In the small intestine
  8. How does the iron get to the bone marrow to be used for erythrocyte production
    Via transferrin and the transferrin receptor
  9. What causes an increase in the amount of transferrin and its associated receptors
    An increase in Erythropoiesis and a depletion of iron storage
  10. Where are some of the sites beyond the bone marrow that the iron can be stored
    Macrophages in the liver, spleen, and bone as well as parenchymal liver cells
  11. Why is parenteral administration of iron used last
    Because once it goes into the blood stream, there is no mechanism excreting it out of the body, once it is in the blood, it is in for good.
  12. What are the few conditions that iron is administered intravenously
    • Patients on Dialysis in conjunction with erythropoietin
    • Patients unable to absorb/tolerate the iron in the intestines
  13. What are the oral preparations of iron
    • Ferrous sulfate
    • Ferrous Gluconate
    • Ferrous fumarate
  14. How much of the ferrous iron from salts can be absorbed
    25%
  15. How long should the treatment of iron be continued
    3-6 months after correction of the issue, this corrects, and begins storage
  16. What are the different parenteral administration options for iron and their routes of administration
    • Iron Dextran (Muscle injection or IV)
    • Sodium ferric gluconate (IV)
    • Iron sucrose (IV)
  17. What are some of the adverse affects of oral iron
    • GI complications
    • Black stool
  18. What are some of the adverse affects of parenteral administration of iron
    • Local pain
    • Headache
    • Light headed
    • Fever
    • Back pain
  19. What is done if a child has an overdose of iron
    • Pump the stomach
    • Administration of iron antidote
  20. Why is iron not given to patients with parkinsons disease
    It appears to speed up the disease
  21. What effects can diets high in Ca+ have on iron
    It interferes with iron absorption
  22. What is the effect of Deferoxamine
    It is an iron chelator and therefore binds to iron in the body and pulls it out of circulation in the form of ferrin and tranferrin
  23. What drugs can be used for iron poisoning and their mode of administration
    • Deferoxamine (IM, or IV)
    • Deferasirox (oral)
  24. What are the two drugs used for B12 deficiency
    • Cyanocobalamine
    • Hydroxocobalamine
  25. What is the chief source of B12 in diets
    • Meat
    • Eggs
    • Dairy products
    • All require microbial breakdown
  26. Why is it okay if one was to go without B12 for an extended period of time
    We have massive stores of it in the liver
  27. How is B12 transferred to various cells in the body
    Transcobalamine
  28. What is a schilling test
    It is a test designed to determine the cause of B12 deficiency by using a B12 radio labeled marker
  29. What is the preferred B12 drug when the patient has malabsorption
    Hydroxycobalamine (Injections)
  30. What is another name for folic acid
    Pteroylglutamic acid
  31. In order for Folic acid to be useful it must
    Undergo a conversion by dyhydrofolate reductase
  32. How long would it take one to have the effects of no Folic acid intake to show symptoms of megaloblastic anemia
    1-6 months due to the low storage and high demand
  33. What important functions are the cofactors of Folic acid required for
    • Nucleotide synthesis
    • DNA synthesis
    • Glycine synthesis
    • Methylation of B12 for use
  34. What is a drug used for Folic acid deficient patients
    Leukovorin
  35. What is an important function of Leukovorin in cancer treatment
    Some drugs in cancer treatment are used as folate antagonists, Leukovorin has the ability to get the folate to the native cells not the cancer cells.
  36. Why are higher doses of Leukovorin not helpful in cancer treatment
    Because higher doses provides Folic acid for the cancer cells whereas the smaller doses prevents it
  37. What are the erythropoietin drugs
    • Darbepoietin Alpha
    • Epoetin Alpha
    • Epoetin Beta
  38. What are the different dosages necessary for the different EPO drugs
    • Darbepoietin once a week
    • Epoetin alpha three doses a week
    • Epoetin Beta once a month
  39. What normally produces EPO
    The renal cortex
  40. What are some conditions that EPO drugs can be used for
    • Aplastic anemia
    • Myelodysplastic disordres
    • Multiple myeloma
    • Anemia from AIDS, HIV, and cancer treatments
    • Hemochromocytosis
  41. EPO's should not be used with patients undergoing
    Chemotherapy, there is a greater chance of death
  42. The administration of iron supplements interferes with the absorption of what drug
    • Tetracycline
    • Quinolones
    • Thyroid Hormone
    • Therfore, if taken, should be done at different times, seperated by at least two hours

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