530 chapter 8

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530 chapter 8
2011-03-03 21:46:36

530 chapter 8
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  1. state of equilibrium of the internal environment of the body
  2. breathing - air into lungs
    inspiration or inhalation
  3. breathing - air out of lungs
    expiration or exhalation
  4. normal respiration (in adult usually 15-20 breaths per minute)
    • eu-pnea
    • eu- means normal
    • -pnea means breathing
  5. muscular wall that separates the abdomen from the thoracic cavity
  6. chest cavity
    • thoracic cavity
    • thorac = chest
  7. pertaining to the diaphragm
    • phren ic
    • sometimes also means pertaining to the mind
  8. membrane that surrounds each lung; also surrounds the walls of the chest cavity
  9. the space between the pleura that covers the lungs and the pleura that lines the thoracic cavity
    pleural cavity
  10. alveol/p
    • alveolus (pl. alveoli)
    • air sacs of the lungs
  11. bronch/o, bronchi/o
    bronchus (pl. bronchi)
  12. epiglott/p
  13. laryng/o
    larynx (voice box)
  14. lob/o
  15. nas/o, rhin/o
  16. phren/o
  17. pleur/o
  18. pharyng/o
  19. pneum/o, pneumon/o, pulm/o, pulmon/o
    lung (pneum/o sometimes means air)
  20. trache/o
  21. labored or difficult breathing
    • dys pnea
    • dys- means difficult
    • -pnea means breathing
  22. means temporary absence of breathing
    • a pnea
    • a- means without
    • -pnea means breathing
  23. condition in which breathing is uncomfortable in any position except sitting erect or standing
    • ortho pnea
    • orth/o = straight
    • -pnea means breathing
  24. abnormally slow breathing
    • brady pnea
    • brady- means slow
    • -pnea means breathing
  25. accelerated respiration; exceeds 25 breaths per minute
    • tachy pnea
    • tachy- means fast
    • -pnea means breathing
  26. increased respiratory rate or breathing that is deeper than normal; a certain degree of this is normal after exercise but it can also result from pain, respiratory or heart disease, or several other conditions
    • hyper pnea
    • hyper- means more than normal
    • -pnea means breathing
  27. hyperpnea may lead to this; increased aeration of the lungs which commonly reduces carbon dioxide levels in the body and can disrupt homeostasis (so also DEEP breathing)
    hyper ventilation
  28. measurement of the amount of air taken into and expelled from the lungs
    • spiro metry
    • spir/o = to breath
    • -metry = measurement
  29. the largest volume of air that can be exhaled after maximum inspiration
    vital capacity
  30. inability of the lungs to perform their ventilatory function
    acute respiratory failure
  31. acute respiratory failure can lead to _____ (less than normal oxygen) or _____ (absence of oxygen); both mean a deficiency of oxygen, which can be caused by respiratory disorders but can occur under other conditions as well
    • hyp oxia: hypo means less than normal
    • an oxia: an means absence
    • ox means oxygen
    • hypoxia can be caused by a lowered oxygen concentration in the air at high altitudes or anemia
  32. a disorder characterized by respiratory insufficiency or hypoxemia
    adult respiratory syndrome (ARDS)
  33. paroxysemal dyspnea accompanied by wheazing; caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucus membranes
  34. a whistling sound made during respiration
  35. means occuring in sudden, periodic attacks or recurrence of symptoms
  36. incomplete expansion of a lung or a portion of it; airlessness or collapse of a lung that had once been expanded
    • atel ectasis
    • atel/o = imperfect
    • -ectasis = stretching
  37. chronic dilation of a bronchus or the bronchi accompanied by a secondary infection that usually involves the lower part of the lung
    • bronchi ectasis
    • bronch/o = bronchus
    • -ectasis = stretching
  38. radiography of the bronchi after a radiopaque substance has been injected into them
    broncho graphy
  39. record of the bronchi and lungs produced by bronchography
  40. lung cancer, he leading cause of cancer-related death; research has consistently confirmed that smoking plays a predominant role in the development of lung cancer
    carcinoma of the lung
  41. a disease process that decreases the ability of the lungs to perform their ventilatory function; this process can result from chronic bronchitis, emphysema, chronic asthma, or cronic bronchiolitis
    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  42. a chronic pulmonary disease characterized by an increase in the size of alveoli and by destructive changes in their walls, resulting in difficulty in breathing
  43. blood in the pleural cavity
    • hemo thorax
    • hem/o = blood
  44. an acute, contagious respiratory infection characterized by sudden onset, chills, headache, fever, and muscular discomfort; it is caused by several different types of viruses
  45. inflammation of the larynx
  46. -inflammation of the pleura
    -it can be caused by infection, injury or a tumor
    -or it can be a complication of certain lung disease
    -characterized by a sharp pain on inspiration
    • pleuritis
    • also called pleurisy
  47. -a respiratory condition caused by inhilation of dust particles
    -frequently seen in people involved in occupations such as mining and stonecutting
    • pneumo conio sis
    • pneumo = lung
    • conio = dust
  48. the accumulation of fluid in lung tissues and alveoli, often caused by congestive heart failure
    pulmonary edema
  49. the blockage of a pulmonary artery by foreign matter such as fat, air, tumor tissue, or a blood clot
    pulmonary embolism
  50. an infectious respiratory disease spread by close contact with an infected person and caused by a coronavirus; is reported to have a fatality rate or approximately 3%
    severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
  51. a form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of the dust of stone, sand or flint that contains silica (quartz is a similar form of silica in its pure state, but silica is present in mant materials, particularly glass)
  52. the sudeen, unexpected death of an apparently normal and healthy infant that occurs during sleep and with no physical or autopsic evidence of disease
    sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
  53. an infectious disease caused by bacterium Mycobaterium tuberculosis; it is often chronic in nature and commonly affects the lungs, although it can occur elsewhere in the body
    • tuberculosis (TB)
    • the disease is named for the tubercles - small, round nodules - that are produced in the lungs by bacteria
  54. SUFFOCATION; requires immediate corrective measures to prevent loss of consciousness, and, if not corrected, death
  55. necessary in upper airway obstruction
    • tracheostomy
    • tracheo = wind pipe
    • stomy = opening
    • requires a tracheotomy...
  56. an incision of the trachea through the skin and muscles of the neck overlaying the trachea; usually performed for insertion of a tube to releave tracheal obstruction
    • tracheotomy
    • tomy = incision
  57. machine that's used for prolonged artificial ventilation in the lungs
  58. the insertion of an airway tube through the mouth or nose into the trachea and may be used to keep an airway open, prevent aspiration of material from the digestive tract in an unconscious or paralyzed patient, permit suctioning of secretions, or provide ventilation that cannot be accomplished with a mask
    endotracheal intubation
  59. refer to insertion of a tube into the trachea through the nose or mouth, respectively
    • nasotracheal intubation: through the nose
    • orotracheal intubation: through the mouth
  60. a more efficient long term method of delivering oxygen and is an alternative to the nasal canulla
    transtracheal oxygen
  61. a devide that delivers oxygen by way of two small tubes that are inserted into the nostrils, is frequently used for long term oxygen maintainance
    nasal cannula
  62. eliminate or reduce swelling or congestion
  63. prevent or relieve coughing
    anti tussives
  64. used to treat colds or allergies
    anti histamines
  65. agents that cause dilation of the bronchi and are used in respiratory conditions where the air passages are constricted, such as asthma
    broncho dilators
  66. destroy or dissolve mucus and are also helpful in opening the breathing passages
    muco lytics
  67. removal of small pieces of lung tissue for the purpose of diagnosil
    lung biopsy
  68. tissue is obtained by puncturing the suspected lesion through the skin
    • percutaneous biopsy
    • per = through
    • cutaneo = skin
  69. surgical removal of all or part of a lung
    • pneumonectomy
    • pneumono = lung
    • ectomy = excision
  70. removal of a lobe of a lung
    pulmonary lobectomy
  71. plastic surgery of the nose; usually performed for cosmetic reasons, but it might also be necessary to provide a free passageway for respiration
  72. surgical puncture of the chest cavity to remove fluid
    • thoracocentesis
    • thoraco = chest
    • centesis = surgical puncture
    • also called thoracentis or thoracic paracentesis
  73. atel/o
  74. coni/o
  75. embol/o
  76. home/o
  77. -ole
  78. ox/o
  79. -pnea
  80. silic/o
  81. spir/o
    to breathe (sometimes, spiral)