Bio Chapter 36

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Author:
bellie66
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70567
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Bio Chapter 36
Updated:
2011-03-03 21:25:38
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bio
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cellular respiration
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  1. Energy
    the ability to do work
  2. Kinetic Energy
    • energy of motion
    • ex. thermal energy - random movement of molecules
  3. Potential Energy
    • stored energy
    • ex. chemical energy - energy due to the arrangement of atoms in molecules
  4. calorie
    • amount of energy required to raise 1 g. water 1 C
    • 1 kilocalorie (Calorie) - 1000 calories
  5. ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
    • powers nearly all forms of cellular work
    • structure of ATP - 3 parts
    • 1. adenine
    • 2. ribose
    • 3. 3 phosphates
    • ATP -------------- ADP + P + energy released
  6. Main Types of Cellular Work
    • chemical
    • mechanical
    • transport
  7. Cellular Respiration
    • the process by which food is broken down by the bodies cells to produce energy in the form of ATP
    • it is carried out by every cell in both plants and animals and is essential for daily living
    • it is an exergonic reaction which means it releases energy
    • also a catabolic process - breaks down polymers into smaller, more manageable pieces
    • goal is to take carbohydrates and dissemble them into glucose molecules which is then produces ATP
  8. Equation for Cellular Respiration
    C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 ------- 6Co2 + 6 H2O + ATP
  9. Gylcolysis
    • sugar breaking
    • glucose molecules from carbohydrates into molecules of pyruvates
    • is a 6 carbon sugar, spilt into two molecules of 2 carbon sugars
    • in process 2 ATP molecules and two NADH are produced
    • occurs in cytoplasm
    • does not need oxygen
  10. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
    • begins after pyruvates are converted to acetyl CoA
    • several high energy compounds are produced - NADH and FADH2
    • also two ATP molecules are formed
    • occurs only when oxygen is present
  11. The Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
    • series of electron carriers in inner membrane of mitochondria
    • high energy electrons are passed from one carrier to another
    • oxygen is final acceptor
    • released energy pumps H+ into inner membrane
    • creates concentration gradient through which ATP can be made - known as chemiosmosis
    • makes 34 ATP
  12. Fermentation
    • cellular process of making ATP without oxygen
    • occurs in cytoplasm
    • produces 2 ATP
    • NAD + is regenerated
  13. Anaerobic
    no oxygen
  14. Latic Acid Fermentation
    • produces 2 ATP and 2 latic acid
    • occurs in muscles; latic acid causes muscle pain
  15. Alcoholic Fermentation
    • produces 2 ATP, 2 Co2, and 2 ethyl alcohol
    • occurs in microbial organisms such as yeast
    • makes bread rise
  16. Obtaining Food
    • all organisms need food for energy and building materials
    • biologists classify organisms according to how they obtain food
  17. Autotrophs
    • organism that uses light energy to make their own food
    • self feeder
  18. Photosynthesis
    process that uses the suns energy to convert water and Co2 into sugars
  19. Producers
    • produce organic molecules that serve as food
    • types of producers
    • 1. terrestrial ecosystems - land plants ex. trees
    • 2. aquatic ecosystems - aquatic plants, algae, photosythentic bacteria ex. oceans, lakes, streams
  20. Heterotrophs
    • can't make own food
    • other eaters
  21. Consumers
    must obtain by eating producers or other consumers
  22. Types of Consumers
    • Herbivores - eats plants
    • Omnivores - eats both plants and animals
    • Carnivores - eats meat
    • Scavengers- eats dead things
    • Decomposers - breaks down dead things
  23. Food Chain
    shows the flow of energy
  24. Food Web
    diagram that shows the relationship in feeding patterns

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