MA 201 Clinical Duties

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Shutrbug20
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70575
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MA 201 Clinical Duties
Updated:
2011-03-20 23:28:12
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Disease Disorders
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Chapter 11 Unit 9
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  1. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
    Caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
  2. Fluid that AIDS survives in best.
    • 1. Blood (WBC)
    • 2. Semen
    • 3. Vaginal Secretions
  3. HIV (Retrovirus)
    • 1. Contains RNA vs DNA
    • 2. RNA changes DNA to RNA (no changing back)
    • 3. Once RNA outnumbers T-cells, body can no longer protect itself
  4. Immunosuppressed
    • 1. No longer able to protect self with T-cells
    • 2. Can get an "opportunistic infection"
  5. Ways to get HIV (4)
    • 1. Unprotected sex
    • 2. Sharring needles
    • 3. Mother to fetus / infant
    • 4. Blood products
  6. Early Signs of HIV
    • Headache
    • Fever
    • Fatigue
    • Enlarged Lymph Nodes
  7. Signs and Symtoms (HIV)
    • weight loss
    • yeast infection
    • memory loss
    • rashes
  8. Difficulty Swallowing (infection)
    • Lymph nodes reacting to internal infection.
    • If lasts too long, have checked out.
  9. Opportunistic Infection
    • Pneumocystis pneumonia (fungal in lungs)
    • Kaposi's Sarcoma
  10. HIV Tests
    • 1. ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)
    • - most common / least expensive
    • - can give false positive

    • 2. Western Blot
    • - used to confirm HIV diagnosis
  11. AIDS Test
    1. Requires positive HIV test and one of the following:

    • - CD4+ count less than 200
    • - Opportunistic infection
    • - AIDS related cancer, severe wasting, dementia
  12. Allergies
    Secomdary response to normally harmless substance
  13. Histamines (allergies)
    Cause mucose membranes to secrete and capillaries to become permiable
  14. Cancer
    A group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth or abnormal cells
  15. Neoplasm (cancer)
    New growth forming tumor
  16. Metastasis (cancer)
    Cells break away from tumor and spread
  17. Benign (cancer)
    Slow growing, doesn't invade other tissue
  18. Malignant
    Fast growing, invades surrounding tissues
  19. Cancer Classifications (3)
    • 1. Carcinomas - from epithelial tissue
    • 2. Sarcomas - from connective tisues
    • 3. Lymphomas - from blood and blood forming organs
  20. Cancer Staging (3)
    • 1. T - size and extent of spread of primary tumor
    • 2. N - presence of regional lymph node metastasis (local or moving)
    • 3. M - presence or absence of distant metastasis (where local or distant)
  21. List 6 Characteristics of Cancer
    • 1. Altered cell structure
    • 2. Lack normal growth controlling mechanics
    • 3. Will grow and invade other tissues
    • 4. Lack contact inhabitions - keep growing
    • 5. Do not respond to growth factors
    • 6. Are invasive, causing distruction of normal tissue
  22. List 4 Catagories of Cancer
    • 1. Chemical
    • 2. Viral
    • 3. Physical
    • 4. Familial
  23. Seven warning signals of Cancer

    CAUTION
    • 1. Change in bowel / bladder habits
    • 2. A sore not healing
    • 3. Unusual bleeding / discharge
    • 4. Thickening / lump anywhere
    • 5. Indigestion / difficulty swallowing
    • 6. Obvious change in wart / mole
    • 7. Nagging cough / hoarseness
  24. Diagnostic Tests (Cancer)
    • 1. Biopsy
    • 2. Tumor Markers
    • 3. Genetic Testing
    • 4. Tumor Imaging
  25. Biopsy (cancer)
    Removal of sample, microscopic exam
  26. Tumor Markers (cancer)
    • Blood test to detect proteins
    • CA125 - Ovarian Cancer (W)
    • PSA - Prostate Cancer (M)
  27. Genetic Testing (cancer)
    Blood test sampling to detect genes of cancer from family history on both sides
  28. Tumor Imaging (cancer)
    • Radiological / imaging test to detect
    • Pep Scan - Thermal image for hot spots that mean cancer, quite accurate
  29. Cancer Therapy Goals
    • 1. Cure
    • 2. Control
    • 3. Palliation - control symptoms (no cure)
  30. Brachytherapy
    Radioactive material placed at tumor
  31. Cancer Treatment
    • 1. Radiation
    • 2. Chemotherapy
    • 3. Surgery
  32. Cancer Treatment (Radiation)
    Use of radiation to damage DNA of the cancer cell

    Brachytherapy use of local radiation therapy
  33. Cancer Treatment (Chemotherapy)
    Use of trong chemicals / medications to change cell division of cancer cells

    Systemic treatment, kills all fast dividing cells (including hair, skin, nails)
  34. Cancer Treatment (Surgery)
    Surgical removal of malignant tissue
  35. Cancer Vaccine
    Effects depend on response of healthy immune system
  36. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
    Group of symptoms thought to be caused by Epstien-Barr Virus
  37. Lupus Erythematosus
    • Cronic disease causing inflammation of body parts
    • Body attacks itself
    • Treat by rest when needed, limit activity and sun exposure
  38. Signs of Lupus
    • Extremeties are always purple at the tips during cold weather
    • Butterfly rash on face
  39. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    • Ulnar deviation (toward ulnar side / pinky)
    • Swan neck of fingers
  40. Lymphedema
    - Swelling in tissues caused by acumulation of lymphatic fluid

    - Treated with elevation, gentle pressure massage, and or wrapping with bandages
  41. Diseases to Know
    • 1. Anthrax - Bacillus Anthracis
    • 2. Botulism - Clostridium Botulinum
    • 3. Yetanus - Clostridium Tetani
    • 4. Pneumonia - Streptococcus Pneumoniae
    • 5. Whooping Cough - Bordetella Pertussis
    • 6. Urinary Infection - Escherichia coli
    • 7. Gonorrhea - Neisseria Gonorrhoeae
    • 8. Food Poisoning - Salmonella
    • 9. Typhoid Fever - Salmonella Typhi
    • 10. Syphilis - Treponema Pallidum
    • 11. Plague - Yersinia Pestis
    • 12. Chickenpox - Vericella Zoster
  42. Syphilis Test
    • 1. Blood test cheap and easy
    • 2. Not accurate in first 4-6 weeks of infection
    • 3. 25% will be false negative

    4. Completely accurate in second phase
  43. Prevent Hep A
    • Avoid direct contact
    • Avoid fecal contaminated food / water

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