Bio-18 Vocab

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raider
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70577
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Bio-18 Vocab
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2011-03-06 19:18:25
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Scientific Classification Vocab
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  1. *How are living things organized for study?
    *To study the diversity of life, biologists use a classification system to name organisms and group them in a logical manner.
  2. taxonomy
    this is where scientists classify organisms and assign each organism a universally accepted name
  3. binomial nomenclature
    two-word naming system developed by Carolus Linnaeus (18th century Swedish botanist)
  4. *Describe the system for naming species that Linnaeus developed.
    *In binomial nomenclature, each species is assigned a two-part scientific name.
  5. genus
    a group of closesly related species
  6. *What are the seven taxonomic categories of Linnaeus's classification system?
    *Linnaeus's hierarchical system of classification includes seven levels. They are- from smallest to largest- species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom.
  7. family
    group of genera that share many characteristics
  8. order
    braod taxonomic catergory composed of similar families
  9. class
    composed of similar orders
  10. phylum
    group of closely related classes
  11. kingdom
    largesty and most inclusive of the categories and consists of Animalia and Plantae
  12. phylogeny
    evolutionary relationships among organisms
  13. *Summarize how evolutionary biologists use phylogenetic methods to classify organisms.
    *Biologists now group organisms into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent, or phylogeny,not just physical similarities.
  14. evolutionary classification
    strategy of grouping organisms together based on their evolutionary history
  15. derived characters
    characteristics that occur in recent parts of the lineage byt not in its older memners
  16. cladogram
    diagram that shows evolutinary relationships
  17. *How do evolutionary scientist use genes to classify organisms?
    *The genes of manty organisms show important similarities at the molecular level. Similarities in DNA can be used to help determine classification and evolutionary relationships.
  18. molecular clock
    uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently
  19. *What are the 6 kingdoms of life as they are now identified?
    *The six-kingdom system of classification includes the kingdoms Eubacateria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
  20. domain
    mare inclusive category than any other- larger than kingdom
  21. *What are the three domains of life?
    *The three domains are the domain Eukarya, which is composed of protists, fungi, plants, and animals; the domain Bacteria, which corresponds to the kingdom Eubacteria; and the domain Archaea, which corresponds to the kingdom Archaebacteria.
  22. Bacteria
    members of this domain are unicellular and prokaryotic
  23. Eubacteria
    these bacteria are ecologically diverse, ranging from free-living soil organisms to deadly parasites
  24. Archaea
    they live in some of the most extreme environments you can imagine
  25. Archaebacteria
    cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan
  26. Eukarya
    all organisms that have a nucleus
  27. Protista
    eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified as animals, plants, or fungi
  28. Fungi
    heterotrophs
  29. Plantae
    multicellular organisms that are photsynthetic autotrophs
  30. Animalia
    multicellular and heterotrophic

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