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carried by chromosomes, determine individual characteristics, such as eye color and genetic disorders
type of developmental study, same group of participants are followed and measured at different stages
developmental study, resaerchers compare groups of participants of different ages on various characteristics to determine age-related differences.
inborn, unlearned,automatic respones to stimuli
capacity to bounce back
understanding that a given quantity of matter remains the same even if it is rearranged as long as nothing is added or taken away. (pouring liquid from a small glass to a bigger glass...the amount of liquid stays the same)
fear and distress shown by infants and toddlers when the parent leaves, occurs 8-24 months peaks 12-18 months
Piagets stages of cognitive development
- sensorimotor(0-2)infants experience through senses at end has concept of object permanence
- properational(2-6) use words and images to represent objects and events. imaginary play, egocentric
- Concrete operations(6-11/12)loical thinking in concrete situations, multiple dimensions
- Formal operations(11/12+) logical thinking abstract situations intersted in the world of ideas
realization that objects still exist even when they are out of sight
failure to consider others perspective
Language Acquisition Device
device for learning symbolic language
- Authoritarian-make rules expect unquestionsed obiedience value obiedience to authority
- Authoritative-high realistic standards, enforce limits,encourage communication
- Permissive-make few rules or demands dont enforce rules allow children to make own decisons and controll their own behavior
- Neglecting-not involved in childrens lives
3 stages prenatal development
- 1. Conception-sperm and ovun unite, create zygote
- 2. Germinal- zygote attaches to unterine wall cells divide
- 3. Embryonic- 3-8 wks organsbody structures develope, stage ends when bone cells begin
process of learning socially acceptable behaviors,attitudes,and values
baby opens mouth and actively searches for a nipple
infants own genetically determined, biological pattern of development
A researcher began collecting data on a group of preschoolers in the early 1990's. She is still compiling data on these individuals, who are now in their early twenties. This resaercher is conducting a _____ study.
Jovan's parents have always been able to coax him into eating vegetables by transferring them from a small plate to a large plate saying, "look! Now you don't have as much to eat." Recently however, Jovan has come to realize that the amount of vegetables remains the same regardless of whether they are on a small or a large plate. This realization demonstrates _______, which suggests that Jovan is in the _______ stage.
Sarah's dad held the door for two people to walk through at the store in the mall. Sarah said, "Daddy why are you doing that?" Sarah's dad remarked that is what nice people do: They help each other. What process is occurring in the interplay between Sarah and her dad?
the 3 levels of kohlberg's moral development
preconventional, conventional, post conventional
identity vs role confusion
adolecents must make the transition from childhood to adulthood, establish an identity, develop a sense of self, and consider a future occupational identity. otherwise role confusuion can result
Intamacy vs isolation
young adults must develop intamacy, the ability to share with, care for, and commit themselves to another person. avoiding intamacy brings a sense of isolation and loneliness
generativity vs stagnation
middle-aged people must find some way of contributing to the development of the next generation. failing this, they may become self absorbed and emotionanlly impovershed and reach a point of stagnation
Marcia's 4 identity statuses
- 1.identity acheived(high crisis/high commitment)
- 2. moratorium (high/low)
- 3. forclosure (low/high)
- 4. Identity diffusion (low/low)
a conflict arising from having to choose between equally desireable alternatives
problem focused coping
a direct response aimed at reducing, modifying, or eliminating a source of stress
emotion focused coping
a response involving reappraisal of a stressor to reduce its emotional impact
active measures taken in advance of a potentially stressful situation in order to prevent its occurence or to minimize its consequences
a combonation of 3 psychological qualitys- commitment,control,and challenge._ shared by people who can handle high levels of stress and remain healthy
a prospective tha focuses on health as well as illness and holds that both are determined by a combonation of biological,psychological, and social factors
According to Erikson, young adults who commit themselves to loving and caring for another person________.
will be better equipped for taking on the challenges of a career than young adults who do not establish an intimate relationship
A middle-aged artist who serves as a voluntee guide for children's groups at a museum is developing what Erikson refers to as _________.
Lonnie decided to major in accounting because his father is a certified accountant who has assured Lonnie that he can take over his father's practice as soon as he passes the CPA exam. Accourding to Marcia, Lonnie may be experiencing _________.
When asked why people shouldn't take snacks, sodas, and other small items that belong to their roommates without asking, Simon, an 18-yr-old college freshman, answers, "Because individuals have to respect others' property rights regardless of whether they expect to be punished for it or not so that there can be order and stability in society. I wouldn't want my roommate to take my stuff, so I shouldn't take his." Simon is reasoning at Kohlberg's _________.
conventional level of moral reasoning
Gilligan's view on moral development of women
they remain at stage 3: Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships. and interpersonal Conformity..."being good" important for its own sake,live up to others expectations
GAS- General Adaptation Syndrome
- predictable sequence of reasction that organisms show in respone to stressors
- (alarm, resistance, and exhuastion stages)
Alarm, resistance, Exhaustion
- -!st stage experince burst of energy to aid in dealing with stressful situation
- -2nd stage intense physiological efforts to either resist or adapt to stressor
- -3rd stage occurs if organism fails in it's efforts to resist stressor
key components of the immune system
white blood cells are lymphocytes
Jan is a physician at a major medical center. Even though she is not a psychologist, she considers her patients mental health and their social situations along with their current physical condition and symptoms when making assessments and developing treatment plans. Jan is an adherent of the ______ model of health care.