Lab 2 Respiratory System

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Lab 2 Respiratory System
2011-03-04 21:11:13
Respiratory system valerick

Respiratory System
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  1. Major Functions of the Respiratory System--
    What are the functions of the Respiratory System?
    • to supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide
    • respiration
  2. Major Functions of the Respiratory System--
    What are the four distinct process of the Respiratory System?
    • pulmonary ventilation
    • external respiration
    • transport
    • internal respiration
  3. Major Functions of the Respiratory System--
    What is pulmonary ventilaiton?
    moving air into and out of the lungs
  4. Major Functions of the Respiratory System--
    What is external respiration?
    gas exchange between the lungs and the blood
  5. Major Functions of the Respiratory System--
    What is transport?
    transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues
  6. Major Functions of the Respiratory System--
    What is internal respiration?
    gas exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues
  7. Upper Respiratory System Structures--
    The upper respiratory systems include:
    • nose
    • pharynx
    • larynx
  8. Structure of the Nose--
    Air passes through:
    • external nares (nostrils)
    • nasal cavity (divided by nasal septum)
    • nasal conchae: inferior, superior and middle
  9. Structure of the Nose--
    Air is warmed, moistened and filtered by the:
    conchae and nasal mucosa
  10. Structure of the Nose--
    Sensitive mucosa triggers sneezing when stimulated by:
    irritating particles
  11. Nasal Cavity--
    Nasal cavity lies in and posterior to the:
    external nose
  12. Nasal Cavity--
    Nasal cavity is divided by a:
    midline nasal septum
  13. Nasal Cavity--
    Nasal cavity opens posteriorly into the nasal pharynx via:
    internal nares
  14. Nasal Cavity--
    The roof is formed by the:
    ethmoid and sphenoid bones
  15. Nasal Cavity--
    The floor is formed by the:
    hard and soft palates
  16. Cleft Palate--
    What is a Cleft Palate?
    Genetic defect, failure of the palatine bones and/or the palatine processes of the maxillary bones to fuse medially
  17. Cleft Palate--
    Cleft Palate causes:
    difficulty in breathing and oral functions such as sucking, mastication and speech
  18. Pharynx--
    The Pharynx is commonly called the:
  19. Pharynx--
    Shape of the Pharynx:
    Funnel-shaped tube of skeletal muscle
  20. Pharynx--
    The Pharynx connects to the:
    • nasal cavity and mouth superiorly
    • larynx and esophagus inferiorly
  21. Pharynx--
    The Pharynx extends from the base of the skull to the level of the:
    sixth cervical vertebra
  22. Pharynx--
    The Pharynx is divided into 3 regions:
    • nasopharynx
    • oropharynx
    • laryngopharynx
  23. Nasopharynx--
    The Nasopharynx lies:
    • posterior to the nasal cavity
    • inferior to the sphenoid
    • and superior to the level of the soft palate
  24. Nasopharynx--
    The Nasopharynx is strictly:
    an air passageway
  25. Nasopharynx--
    The Nasopharynx closes during swallowing to prevent:
    food from entering the nasal cavity
  26. Nasopharynx--
    The pharyngeal tonsil lies:
    high on the posterior wall
  27. Nasopharynx--
    The pharyngotympanic (auditory) tubes open into the:
    • lateral walls
    • equalize middle ear
    • and atmostpheric pressures
  28. Nasopharynx--
    Nasal infection may invade the middle ear cavity and cause:
    otitis media
  29. Oropharynx--
    The Oropharynx extends inferiorly from the level of the:
    soft palate to the epiglottis
  30. Oropharynx--
    Palatine tonsils lie in the:
    lateral walls of the fauces
  31. Oropharynx--
    Lingual tonsil covers the:
    base of the tongue
  32. Oropharynx--
    The Oropharynx serves as a common passageway for:
    food and air
  33. Laryngopharynx--
    Laryngopharynx serves as a common passageway for:
    food and air
  34. Laryngopharynx--
    The Laryngopharynx lies posterior to the:
    upright epiglottis
  35. Laryngopharynx--
    The Laryngopharynx extends to the larynx, where the:
    respiratory and digestive pathways diverge
  36. Larynx--
    The Larynx is also known as the:
    voice box
  37. Larynx--
    The Larynx is continuous with the:
    trachea posteriorly
  38. Larynx--
    Cartilages (hyaline) of the Larynx:
    • shield-shaped anterosuperior thyroid cartilage with a midline laryngeal prominence (Adam's Apple)
    • ring-shaped anteroinferior cricoid cartilage
    • three pairs of small arytenoid, cuneiform, and corniculate cartilages
  39. Larynx--
    Within the Larynx, the epiglottis is an:
    elastic cartilage that covers the laryngeal inlet during swallowing
  40. Lower Respiratory System Structures--
    The trachea or windpipe is part of the:
    lower respiratory system
  41. Lower Respiratory System Structures--
    The trachea or windpipe is a flexible and mobile tube extending from the larynx into the:
  42. Lower Respiratory System Structures--
    The trachea or windpipe is composed of three layers:
    • mucosa - made up of goblet cells and ciliated epithelium
    • submucosa - connective tissue deep to the mucosa
    • adventitia - outermost layer made up C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage
  43. Main (Primary) Bronchi--
    Structure of main (primary) bronchi:
    • carina of the last tracheal cartilage marks the end of the trachea and the beginning of the bronchi
    • plunge into their respective lungs at an indented area called the hilus
  44. Main (Primary) Bronchi--
    Right main primary bronchi is:
    wider, shorter and more vertical than the left; foreign objects more likely to become lodged in it
  45. Main (Primary) Bronchi--
    Within the main (primary) bronchi, the bronchi subdivide into:
    secondary (also tertiary...) bronchi, each supplying a lobe of lungs
  46. Bronchioles--
    Bronchi become:
  47. Bronchioles--
    Bronchioles have terminal branches called:
    respiratory bronchioles
  48. Bronchioles--
    Continuous branching of the respiratory passageways in the lungs is often referred to as the:
    respiratory tree
  49. Respiratory Zone--
    Respiratory zone is defined by:
    • the presence of alveoli
    • begins are terminal bronchioles feed into respiratory bronchioles
  50. Respiratory Zone--
    Respiratory bronchioles lead to:
    • alveolar ducts
    • then to terminal clusters of alveolar sacs composed of alveoli
  51. Respiratory Zone--
    Within the respiratory zone, there is approximately:
    300 million alveoli
  52. Respiratory Zone--
    The functions of the approximate 300 million alveoli in the respiratory zone:
    • account for most of the lungs' volume
    • provide tremendous area for gas exchange
  53. Respiratory Membrane--
    The Respiratory Membrane is an air-blood barrier composed of:
    • alveolar and capillary walls
    • their fused basal laminas
  54. Respiratory Membrane--
    Structure/function of the Respiratory Membrane's Alveolar Walls:
    • are a single layer of type I epithelial cells
    • permit gas exhange by simple diffusion
  55. Respiratory Membrane--
    The Respiratory Membrane's type II cells secrete:
  56. Gross Anatomy of the Lungs--
    Lungs occupy all of the thoracic cavity except the:
  57. Gross Anatomy of the Lungs--
    Thoracic cavity's root:
    site of vascular and bronchial attachments
  58. Gross Anatomy of the Lungs--
    Thoracic cavity's costal surface:
    anterior, lateral, and posterior surfaces in contact with the ribs
  59. Gross Anatomy of the Lungs--
    Thoracic cavity's apex:
    narrow superior tip
  60. Gross Anatomy of the Lungs--
    Thoracic cavity's base:
    inferior surface that rests on the diaphragm
  61. Gross Anatomy of the Lungs--
    Thoracic cavity's hilus:
    indentation that contains pulmonary and systemic blood vessels
  62. Lungs--
    Lungs: Cardiac notch (impression):
    cavity that accomodates the heart
  63. Lungs--
    Left Lung is separated into upper and lower lobes by the:
    oblique fissure
  64. Lungs--
    Right Lung is separated into three lobes by the:
    oblique and horizontal fissures
  65. Lungs--
    In each lung, there are:
    10 bronchopulmonary segments
  66. Pleura--
    Pleura is a:
    thin, double-layered serosa
  67. Pleura--
    Two types of pleura:
    • parietal pleura
    • visceral, or pulmonary, pleura
  68. Pleura--
    Function/structure of parietal pleura:
    • covers the thoracic wall and superior face of the diaphragm
    • continues around heart and between lungs
  69. Pleura--
    Function/structure of visceral/pulmonary pleura:
    • covers the external lung surface
    • divides the thoracic cavity into three chambers: the central mediastinum and two lateral compartments, each containing a lung
  70. Breathing--
    Breathing or pulmonary ventilation consists of two phases:
    • inspiration: air flow into the lungs
    • expiration: gases exit the lungs
  71. Pressure Relationships--
    Pressure Relationship: two forces act to pull the lungs away from the thoracic wall, promoting lung collapse:
    • elasticity of lungs causes them to assume smallest possible size
    • surface tenstion of alveolar fluid draws alveoli to their smallest possible size
  72. Pressure relationships--
    Opposing force:
    elasticity of the chest wall pulls the thorax outward to enlarge the lungs
  73. Inspiration--
    Step 1: The diaphram and intercostal mucles (inspiratory muscles):
    contract and the rib cage rises
  74. Inspiration--
    Step 2: The lungs are stretched and intrapulmonary volume:
  75. Inspiration--
    Step 3: Intrapulmonary pressure drops below:
    atmospheric pressure (-1 mmHg)
  76. Inspiration--
    Step 4: Air flows into the lungs, down its pressure gradiant, until:
    intrapleural pressure = atmospheric pressure
  77. Exspiration--
    Step 1: Inspiratory muscles relax and the rib cage descends due to:
  78. Expiration--
    Step 2: Thoracic volume:
  79. Expiration--
    Step 3: Elastic lungs recoil passively and intrapulmonary volume:
  80. Expiration--
    Step 4: Intrapulmonary pressure rises above:
    atmospheric pressure (+1 mmHg)
  81. Expiration--
    Step 5: Gases flow out of the lungs down the pressure gradiant until:
    intrapulmonary is 0
  82. Factors that diminish lung compliance--
    scar tissue or fibrosis that reduces the:
    natural resilience of the lungs
  83. Factors that diminish lung compliance--
    blockage of the smaller respiratory passages with:
    mucus or fluid
  84. Factors that diminish lung compliance--
    reduced production of:
  85. Factors that diminish lung compliance--
    decreased flexibility of the thoracic cage or its decreased:
    ability to expand
  86. Respiratory volumes--
    Tidal volume (TV):
    • air that moves into and out of the lungs with each breath
    • approximately 500 mL
  87. Respiratory volumes--
    inspiratory reserve volume (IRV):
    • air that can be inspired forcibly beyond the tidal volume
    • 3100 mL
  88. Respiratory volumes--
    expiratory reserve volume (ERV):
    • air that can be evacuated from the lungs after tidal expiration
    • 1200 mL
  89. Respiratory volumes--
    residual volume (RV):
    • air left in lungs after strenuous expiration
    • 1200 mL
  90. Respiratory capacities--
    Inspiratory capacity (IC):
    • total amount of air that can beinspired after a tidal expiration
    • IRV + TV
  91. Respiratory capacities--
    Functional residual
    capacity (FRC):
    • amount of air remaining in the lungs after a tidal expiration
    • RV + ERV
  92. Respiratory capactiies--
    Vital capacity (VC):
    • the total amount of exchangeable air
    • TV + IRV + ERV
    • 4800 mL
  93. Respiratory capacities--
    Total lung capacity (TLC):
    • sum of all lung volumes
    • approximately 6000 mL in males
  94. Dead space--
    Anatomical dead space:
    • volume of the conducting respiratory passages
    • 150 mL
  95. Dead space--
    Alveolar dead space:
    alveoli that cease to act in gas exchange due to collapse or obstruction
  96. Dead space--
    Total dead space:
    sum of alveolar and anatomical dead spaces
  97. Pulmonary function tests--
    an instrument consisting of a hollow bell inverted over water, used to evaluate respiratory function
  98. Pulmonary function tests--
    Spirometry can distinguish between:
    • Obstructive pulmonary disease: increased airway resistance
    • Restrictive disorders: reduction in total lung capacity from structural or functional lung changes
  99. Pulmonary function tests--
    Total ventilation:
    total amount of gas flow into or out of the respiratory tract in one minute
  100. Pulmonary function tests--
    Forced vital capacity (FVC):
    gas forcibly expelled after taking a deep breath
  101. Pulmonary function tests--
    Forced expiratory volume (FEV):
    the amount of gas expelled during specific time intervals of the FVC
  102. Pulmonary function tests--
    Increases in TLC, FRC, and RV may occur as a result of:
    obstructive disease
  103. Pulmonary functions tests--
    Reduction in VC, TLC, FRC, and RV result from:
    restrictive disease