EMT-Basic Notes 07.txt

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EMT-Basic Notes 07.txt
2010-03-09 15:16:13
Notes Chapter 07

Notes Chapter 7 Airway
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  1. What is Osteoporosis (pg 195)
    Brittle bones, rigidity
  2. What is Kyphosis and Spondylosis (pg 195)
    Spinal Curvatures
  3. What is the Epiglottis (pg 214)
    Leaf shaped structure above larynx that prevents food and liquid from entering the larynx
  4. What is Tidal Volume (pg 216)
    Measure of depth of breathing, is the amount of air in milliters (mL) that is moved into or out of the lungs during a sungle breath
  5. What is Diffusion (pg 218)
    Passive Process in which Molecules move from an area of higher conventration to an area of lower concentration
  6. What happens when the levels of CO2 become to high or to low (pg 219)
    The Brsin automatically adjusts breathing accordingly
  7. What is Hypoxia (pg 218)
    Extreemly dangerous condition in which the bodys tissues and cells do not have enough oxygen
  8. Some cells may be severely or permanently damaged after how many minutes without oxygen (pg 218)
    After only 4 to 6 minutes
  9. What is Myocardial infarction (pg 220)
    Heart Attack or Iscemia when there is inadequate circulation ofvoxygen carrying blood to the tissues of the heart
  10. What is Pulomonary Edema (pg 220)
    Fluid accumulates in the lungs reducing exchange of O2 and CO2 in yhe Alveoli
  11. What is Hypoperfusion (pg 220)
    Shock ( when the circulatory system fails to provide adequate amounts og Oxygen, tissues begin to die)
  12. What is COPD (pg 220)
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (poor gas exchange due to alveolar damage)
  13. What are the two primary purposes for the Oropharyngeal Airway (pg 226)
    • 1) Keep tongue from blocking airway
    • 2) Make it easier to suction oropharynx if necessary
  14. What is Gag Reflex ( pg 226)
    Protective reflex mechanism that prevents food and other particals from enyering airway
  15. What two types of tips are fitted for portable suction units (pg 231)
    • 1: Plastic ridged pharyngeal called Tonsil or Yankauer tips
    • 2: Nonridged plastic catheters called French or Whistle-tip
  16. What is the recommended vacuum for a suction device (pg 232)
    Make sure the unit generates a vacuum of more then 300 mm Hg
  17. Never suction the mouth for more then ... Then ventilate for 2 minutes before suctioning again (pg 233)
    • 15 seconds for adults
    • 10 seconds for children
    • 5 seconds for infants
  18. When is the recovery position not appropriate (pg 234)
    • 1: Suspected spinal trauma
    • 2: Unconscious patients who require ventilatory assistance
  19. List 4 steps for placing an oxygen cylinder into service (pg 239)
    • 1: Crack valve to clear dirt particles or contaminants
    • 2: Attach regulator/Flowmeter making sure washer is in place
    • 3: Attach Regulator alligning pins and holes (hand tighten)
    • 4: Attach O2 tubing to flow meter
  20. Most EMS portable O2 cylinders have a max pressure of approx 2000 psi. What are the parameters to keep them in swrvice (pg 238)
    Less the 500 to 1000 psi considered to low to keep in service
  21. What is the O2 flow rate for Nasal cannula (pg 240)
    • 1 to 6 liters/ min.
    • With oxygen delivery at 24% to 44%
  22. What is the O2 flow rate for non-rebreathing mask (pg 240)
    • 10 to 15 liters/min
    • Up to 90% O2 delivered
  23. What is the O2 flow rate for a BVM Device (pg 240)
    • 15 liters/min
    • Nearly 100% O2 delivered
  24. What are you required to check before using a non-rebreathing mask (pg 240)
    Be sure the reservoir bag is full before mask is placed on patient
  25. When is the Sellick Maneuver also known as Cricoid pressure countraindicated? (pg 246)
    In a patient actively vomiting because it may cause esophageal rupture
  26. When should you use a Shellick or Cricoid pressure technique (pg 246)
    When there are two or more rescuers and the patients chest does not rise and fall or there are signs of Gastric Distention
  27. What is Pnemothorax (pg 248)
    The pressence of air or gas in the pleural cavity
  28. Flow restricted Oxygen devices such as those used in the hospitals can provide up to 100% O2 but are not recomended for what type of patients (pg 248)
    Patients with COPD, patients with suspected cervical spine injuries, patients with chest injuries or on infants and children
  29. When is Gastric Distention most likely to occur (pg 248)
    When you ventilate the patient too forcefully or too often with a BVM or or pocket mask device or the airway is obstructed.
  30. Which hole should you use when ventilating a patient with a lagyngectomy (tracheostomy) (pg 248)
    The midline opening is the only one you can use to put O2 into the lungs (ignore any other openings)
  31. What is the most common obstruction in an unconscious patient (pg 249)
  32. List 5 possible causes for airway obstruction (pg 250)
    • 1: Relaxation of the tongue
    • 2: Aspirated Vomitus (stomach content)
    • 3: Foreign objects (food, dentures, small toys)
    • 4: Blood clots, bone fragements, or damaged tissue after an injury
    • 5:Airway tissue swelling (infection, allergic reaction)