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- o A scientific theory which describes the large scale motions of Earth's tectonic plates.
- o The theory builds on the older concepts of continental drift
o States that all present continents were once together and collectively known as a'supercontinent' called a Pangaea.
o Triangular in shape
o First Maritime Crossroads
o Largest commodity exchanged was religion, the largest being Islam
o Wind and weather determined trade
- o Economic benefits to being Muslim, tax
- breaks ext.
o 4,000 Years of trading, language, religion, and culture
oPorts of Indian ocean were diverse
o India did not produce a lot of commodities but served as a weigh station and warehouse
- o Vessel made of reeds
- o Used tar for outside and inside of vessel to make it more water resistant
- o Fiber Vessel
o Triangular sail (Lateen sail)
o Built of wood
- o Longer lived reliable, larger, sewn
Perilous of the Eritrean Sea
- o A book that helped mariners know what the sea
- would be like in a particular area
- o Greek periplus, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea,
- and others along Northeast Africa and India.
- o Produced wood, medications from plants, and perfume
- o Had high value low volume goods
o Junk vessels
o Built vessels using joints
- o Exported silk, porcelain, sandal wood
- o Lots of consumers
- o Fleet of 300 vessels, six times larger than Christopher Columbus’
- o Until 1420 the Atlantic ocean was thought of as
- a barrier
- o Wind and weather patterns effected the Gulf
- o Second largest ocean
- o Most trafficked area, a lot of ports
- o Need a very reliable vessel that will allow you
- to tack, take harsh conditions and large enough to carry cargo that can turn a profit
o A small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean.
- o Combines best aspects of all ships, galley, lateen sails
- o The lateen sails gave her speed and the capacity for sailing to windward (beating).
o Combines the best aspects of all ships
Volta Do Mar
o Portuguese discovered it in 1250
o Meaning- Return of the Sea
o Allowed sailors to make round trip voyages
- o Made a lot of money in Swahili
- o Went to Asia for spices
- o Religion Islam
- o Spain were their main rivals
- o Had heavily fortified islands in africa
- o Big in gold and silver
- o Government operation
- o Private monolpoly from Sevilla
- o 20% of profits went to government in exchange for protection
- o Less ships than portugues but they were larger which saved money due to a smaller crew
- o 2 Armodas
- o New Spain Flota
- o Terra Firme Flota
- o Named after Christopher Columbus
- o Language and religion
- o Bio Mantu- Living exchange for dieses
- o A Lot of people died in East Africa due to European dieses
- o Columbian Exchange helped old world people, population grew due to food (potatoes)
o New world brought sugar
o Used to make alcohol
o Very labor intensive
o Slaves were used to produce the sugar
- o The Middle Passage was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa
- were taken to the New World, as part of the Atlantic
- slave trade.
o Wealth of nation is the political Ideology behind the trade in the Atlantic world
o Monarchy has a king or queen
o John Locke outlines the philosophy “if no one likes the king then don’t like him.
o People were against the king and monarchy
o An economic theory that holds the prosperity of a state is dependent upon its supply of capital, that the global volume of international trade is "unchangeable," and that one party may benefit only at the expense of another.
- Broken into 3 regions
- o Polynesia- Many islands
- o Melanesia- Black Island
- o Micronesia- Small Island.
- o New way to refer to the pacific islands
- o Near Oceania- Closer to Asia
- o Remote Oceania-Closer to the Americas
- o Polynesian triangle- New Zealand, Hawaii, Easter Island
- o Islands closer to Asia were discovered first
- o Bird migration patterns were used to help discover land
- o Historians used artistic, languages, and other types of evidence to determine migration patterns of the islands
- o Pacific means- Gental or peaceful
- o The Phillipeans were used as a warehouse for the pacific
- o Dutch, English and Spanish all wanted part of the pacific
- o Dutch had a strangle on the spices
- o Took about 300 years to completely discover the pacific, islands were still being discovered in
o The name comes from Lapita in New Caledonia
- o The term Lapita refers to an ancient Pacific culture that archaeologists believe to be the common ancestor of the contemporary cultures of Polynesia, Micronesia,
- and some areas of Melanesia.
o The far islands are linked and the close islands are not
o People form Hawaii and Tahiti have very similar language
o Formed from Coral or volcanoes