Mem and Cog Exam 2

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  1. short term memory
    • memory responsible for processing and retaining info beyond the sensory registers
    • not much longer than a minute
  2. decay
    forgetting because of passage of time
  3. interference
    • info in short term mem interferes with or in some way blocks the trtrieval of other info.
    • primary cause of forgetting in STM
  4. parallel search
    all item sin short term are available more or less at once.
  5. serial self-terminating search
    • going through items one at a time
    • once target item is reached, search stops
  6. serial exhaustive search
    going through items one at a time, whan target item is found people continute until they search through entire list.
  7. suffix effect
    recency effect is diminished when extra info is presented at end of a list (esp when that info is similar to the list)
  8. slot based models
    STM is composed of a series of ordered slots and info is dropped into each box as it's encountered.
  9. chaining model
    STM info contains a series of associative links.
  10. perturbation model
    • info in short term is organized intoa hierarchy of chunks
    • every item regulated by a control unit that manages the chunk.
  11. inhibition models
    inhibition is used to recover serial order
  12. repetition blindness
    when people read sentences in which a word is shown twice in rapid succession and they claim to not have seen the word.
  13. context-based models
    context is constantly in flux even at a very subtle level
  14. working memory
    • controlled use of info in STM
    • thinking of how to get to a mall you've never been to
  15. Baddeley and Hitch model
    • phonological loop
    • visuo-spatial sketchpad
    • central executive
  16. central executive
    main control center of working memory
  17. phonological store
    temporary storehouse of information
  18. articulatory loop
    active rehearsal component of phonological loop
  19. phonological loop includes
    phonological store and articulatory loop
  20. word length effect
    • a person's word span is amller for longer words than for shorter words
    • the longer the words, the more info needs to be refreshed by the articulatory loop
  21. articulatory suppression
    reduced verbal span when a person is engaged in a speaking task while simultaneously trying to remember a set of items
  22. irrelevant speech effect
    • phonological loop less efficient when people are listening to irrelevant speech in the background even if its in a language they don't understand
    • reading in a room where others are talking
  23. phonological similarity effect
    the more phonologically similar (closer the sounds are) the items in a set are, the more errors are made on recall
  24. lexicality effect
    memory spans are larger for lists of words than for lists of nonwords.
  25. visuo-spatial sketchpad
    • responsible for visual information (size or color)and spatial info (orientation of objects)
    • images must be actively rehearsed in the sketchpad or they'll degrade
    • larger images harder to maintain than smaller images
  26. mental rotation
    • person must mentally turn some object
    • has characteristics that mimic physical rotation - greater the degree of rotation the longer it takes to complete the task
  27. boundary extension
    • memory for details beyond what is seen
    • seeing a greater expanse of a scene than was shown in a picture
  28. dynamic memory
    interpretation of either real or perceived motion of objects.
  29. representational momentum
    tendency for people to misremember the location or orientation of an object further along its path of motion than it actually was the last time it was seen.
  30. representational gravity
    • memory of object positions tends to be distorted toward the arth, especially when objects aren't supported
    • greater an incline the further down it an object moves in a test
  31. representational friction
    • objects moving in space slow down more quickly if they are moving along another object that can produce friction.
    • greater the implied contact with a surface, greater the implied friction.
  32. central executive
    • allocation of attentional resources
    • helps coordinate what info is attended to in working memory and what is not
    • controls mechanisms of memory - suppression
  33. suppression
    used to keep irrelevant info out of working memory or to remove from working memory info thats become irrelevant.
  34. dysexecutive syndrome
    perseverations occurs when a person has been performign a task one way and is asked to perform it another way.
  35. simple span measure
    a measure that requires a person to do one simple task
  36. complex span measures
    measure with a retention component and an active processing component
  37. reading span test
    • person asked to read aloud a set of two to six sentences
    • after each set person mucst recall last word in each of the sentences of that set.
    • largest set of words that can all be accurately recalled corresponds to that persons reading span score.
  38. comprehension span test
    same as reading span test but also have to make sensibility judgments about whether the sentence made sense
  39. operation span test
    • person asked to read aloud a two step math problem, then indicate whether the solution is correct when its shown
    • afterwards a word is shown, then given another math prob
    • must recall as many words as possible
    • largest set size that can be recalled reflects person's operation span score.
  40. spatial span
    • person is given a series of letters that have been rotated from normal position
    • first must indicate whether the letters are normal or mirror reversed (active processing)
    • then indicate where the tops of the letters were in the set by pointing (retention component)
  41. episodic memories
    memories for events that we experienced
  42. semantic memories
    general world knowledge
  43. cuing
    • prompts to direct our memories
    • feature cues and context cues
  44. feature cues
    involve components of the memory itself
  45. context cues
    involve some part of the environment
  46. contexts that can influence memory
    linguistic, external, internal
  47. linguistic context
    other bits of language that cooccurred with a particular piece of info (what verbal learners pick up)
  48. external context
    the environment outside a person (room one is in)
  49. internal context
    environment inside a person (physiological state, emotions)
  50. encoding specificity
    ability to remember when recall occurs in the same context as info that was learned as opposed to a different context.
  51. state dependent memory
    things are better remembered when you are in a similar phsyciological state during recall as you are during learning.
  52. mood-congruent memory
    remember more positive things in a postive mood, remember more negative things in a negative mood
  53. mood - state dependence
    memory is better when learning nad testing in the same mood
  54. transfer appropriate processing
    memory is better when retrieval uses mental processes that are more in tune with those used at learning
  55. interference
    episodic memories comepete with one another
  56. kinds of interference
    • negative transfer
    • proactive interference
    • retroactive interference
    • associative interference
  57. negative transfer
    • kind of interference where prior knowledge impedes ability to learn new info
    • applies to acquisition of new info
  58. proactive interference
    • occurs when old knowldge results in the increased forgetting of new knowledge
    • refers to forgetting of meory traces for new information
  59. retroactive interference
    when new knowledge makes it difficult to remember old knowledge
  60. associative interference
    the more associations there are with a concept the greater the interference and the worse the memory
  61. fan effect
    • assumes that info is stored in a network with nodes and links to the nodes
    • the more links to a node the more interference from competing associations
  62. inhibition
    actively reduces the activation of interfering info
  63. part-set cuing
    poorer memory when given partial info about data
  64. directed forgetting
    • telling people that some info is irrelevant adn can be forgotten
    • no proactive interference from the to be forgotten words with the to learn new words even if theyre similar
  65. negative priming
    • opposite of priming
    • decreased availability of memory traces that were recently inhibited
  66. retrieval induced inhibition
    • remembering one thing makes remembering related things more difficult
    • (negative priming)
  67. repeated practice effect
    retrieval induced inhibition for related but unpracticed memories
  68. repetition effect
    more a person is exposed to info the more likely it will be remembered
  69. massed practice
  70. distributed practice
    studying over a period of extended time
  71. deficient processing
    • deficiency in how the to be learned info is processed.
    • occurs in massed practice
  72. reasons for differences in massed vs distributed
    • deficient processing
    • encoding variability
    • dual processes
  73. encoding variability
    • in distributed practice the context of each practice is different making them distinct
    • in massed prac. context for everything is the same
  74. dual processes
    assumes that deficient processing and encoding variability operate during retrieval
  75. overlearning
    continued practice of known info
  76. permastore
    • deep freeze of memory - where nothing is forgotten
    • entrance into it is an effect of distributed practice and overlearning
  77. Von Restorff effect
    memory for a unique item is better than memory for any one of the others (in a list - red word in a bunch of black words)
  78. material appropriate processing
    • distinction b/t types of learning and memory for different types of texts
    • novel vs a textbook
  79. bizarre imagery
    • works when a small portion of info gets the bizarre image treatment
    • example of distinctive processing
    • forming a mental image of something you want to remember
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Mem and Cog Exam 2
2011-03-06 05:26:46
Mem Cog Exam

Mem and Cog Exam 2
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