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short term memory
- memory responsible for processing and retaining info beyond the sensory registers
- not much longer than a minute
forgetting because of passage of time
- info in short term mem interferes with or in some way blocks the trtrieval of other info.
- primary cause of forgetting in STM
all item sin short term are available more or less at once.
serial self-terminating search
- going through items one at a time
- once target item is reached, search stops
serial exhaustive search
going through items one at a time, whan target item is found people continute until they search through entire list.
recency effect is diminished when extra info is presented at end of a list (esp when that info is similar to the list)
slot based models
STM is composed of a series of ordered slots and info is dropped into each box as it's encountered.
STM info contains a series of associative links.
- info in short term is organized intoa hierarchy of chunks
- every item regulated by a control unit that manages the chunk.
inhibition is used to recover serial order
when people read sentences in which a word is shown twice in rapid succession and they claim to not have seen the word.
context is constantly in flux even at a very subtle level
- controlled use of info in STM
- thinking of how to get to a mall you've never been to
Baddeley and Hitch model
- phonological loop
- visuo-spatial sketchpad
- central executive
main control center of working memory
temporary storehouse of information
active rehearsal component of phonological loop
phonological loop includes
phonological store and articulatory loop
word length effect
- a person's word span is amller for longer words than for shorter words
- the longer the words, the more info needs to be refreshed by the articulatory loop
reduced verbal span when a person is engaged in a speaking task while simultaneously trying to remember a set of items
irrelevant speech effect
- phonological loop less efficient when people are listening to irrelevant speech in the background even if its in a language they don't understand
- reading in a room where others are talking
phonological similarity effect
the more phonologically similar (closer the sounds are) the items in a set are, the more errors are made on recall
memory spans are larger for lists of words than for lists of nonwords.
- responsible for visual information (size or color)and spatial info (orientation of objects)
- images must be actively rehearsed in the sketchpad or they'll degrade
- larger images harder to maintain than smaller images
- person must mentally turn some object
- has characteristics that mimic physical rotation - greater the degree of rotation the longer it takes to complete the task
- memory for details beyond what is seen
- seeing a greater expanse of a scene than was shown in a picture
interpretation of either real or perceived motion of objects.
tendency for people to misremember the location or orientation of an object further along its path of motion than it actually was the last time it was seen.
- memory of object positions tends to be distorted toward the arth, especially when objects aren't supported
- greater an incline the further down it an object moves in a test
- objects moving in space slow down more quickly if they are moving along another object that can produce friction.
- greater the implied contact with a surface, greater the implied friction.
- allocation of attentional resources
- helps coordinate what info is attended to in working memory and what is not
- controls mechanisms of memory - suppression
used to keep irrelevant info out of working memory or to remove from working memory info thats become irrelevant.
perseverations occurs when a person has been performign a task one way and is asked to perform it another way.
simple span measure
a measure that requires a person to do one simple task
complex span measures
measure with a retention component and an active processing component
reading span test
- person asked to read aloud a set of two to six sentences
- after each set person mucst recall last word in each of the sentences of that set.
- largest set of words that can all be accurately recalled corresponds to that persons reading span score.
comprehension span test
same as reading span test but also have to make sensibility judgments about whether the sentence made sense
operation span test
- person asked to read aloud a two step math problem, then indicate whether the solution is correct when its shown
- afterwards a word is shown, then given another math prob
- must recall as many words as possible
- largest set size that can be recalled reflects person's operation span score.
- person is given a series of letters that have been rotated from normal position
- first must indicate whether the letters are normal or mirror reversed (active processing)
- then indicate where the tops of the letters were in the set by pointing (retention component)
memories for events that we experienced
general world knowledge
- prompts to direct our memories
- feature cues and context cues
involve components of the memory itself
involve some part of the environment
contexts that can influence memory
linguistic, external, internal
other bits of language that cooccurred with a particular piece of info (what verbal learners pick up)
the environment outside a person (room one is in)
environment inside a person (physiological state, emotions)
ability to remember when recall occurs in the same context as info that was learned as opposed to a different context.
state dependent memory
things are better remembered when you are in a similar phsyciological state during recall as you are during learning.
remember more positive things in a postive mood, remember more negative things in a negative mood
mood - state dependence
memory is better when learning nad testing in the same mood
transfer appropriate processing
memory is better when retrieval uses mental processes that are more in tune with those used at learning
episodic memories comepete with one another
kinds of interference
- negative transfer
- proactive interference
- retroactive interference
- associative interference
- kind of interference where prior knowledge impedes ability to learn new info
- applies to acquisition of new info
- occurs when old knowldge results in the increased forgetting of new knowledge
- refers to forgetting of meory traces for new information
when new knowledge makes it difficult to remember old knowledge
the more associations there are with a concept the greater the interference and the worse the memory
- assumes that info is stored in a network with nodes and links to the nodes
- the more links to a node the more interference from competing associations
actively reduces the activation of interfering info
poorer memory when given partial info about data
- telling people that some info is irrelevant adn can be forgotten
- no proactive interference from the to be forgotten words with the to learn new words even if theyre similar
- opposite of priming
- decreased availability of memory traces that were recently inhibited
retrieval induced inhibition
- remembering one thing makes remembering related things more difficult
- (negative priming)
repeated practice effect
retrieval induced inhibition for related but unpracticed memories
more a person is exposed to info the more likely it will be remembered
studying over a period of extended time
- deficiency in how the to be learned info is processed.
- occurs in massed practice
reasons for differences in massed vs distributed
- deficient processing
- encoding variability
- dual processes
- in distributed practice the context of each practice is different making them distinct
- in massed prac. context for everything is the same
assumes that deficient processing and encoding variability operate during retrieval
continued practice of known info
- deep freeze of memory - where nothing is forgotten
- entrance into it is an effect of distributed practice and overlearning
Von Restorff effect
memory for a unique item is better than memory for any one of the others (in a list - red word in a bunch of black words)
material appropriate processing
- distinction b/t types of learning and memory for different types of texts
- novel vs a textbook
- works when a small portion of info gets the bizarre image treatment
- example of distinctive processing
- forming a mental image of something you want to remember