PHil TEst 2-2
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Augustine on the nature of human beings
- believed Jesus to be embodiment of perfection
- warned to beware of the world and flesh because they are only temporary
- we have bodies so we belong to the material world, but we also have souls so we belong in the higher spiritual world
- metaphysical position that reality is ultimately composed of matter
- [reality consists of matter nothing else- the human body is a machine]
con - what about decision, thoughts and feelings?
Democritus on atoms
- universe consists of atoms and epty space
- even the soul (equated with reason) consisted of atoms
- "all things happen by virtue of necessity, the vortex being the cause of the creation of all things"
- the position that reality is ultimately non matter; the view that reality consists of mind and its contents
- [if everything were matter, where does God fit in? where do souls fit in? since we can know only ideas, we can't conclude that a world of matter exists]
pro - provides explanation for God and religion in phil
con - anthropomorphism - the attribution of human qualities to nonhuman entities, especially God
in epistemology, the position that all we ever know are are our own ideas
con - perception and the actual thing might differ
the position that ideas exist in an objective state; associated originally wtih Plato
pro - explains why perceptible things persis in the mind, and it offers an intelligible world system
con - why do you need to involve the mind of God? materialism accounts for composition and eventual demise of buildings, trees, etc.
- one of the elementary particles known to physics and among the most philosophically provocative.
- has no physical properties - no mass, no electrical charge and no magnetic field
- neutrinos coming from the sun and stars are passing through your skull and brain.
[Peirce, James, Dewey]
philisophical school of thought, that tries to mediate between idealism and materialism by rejecting all absolute first principles, tests truth through workability and views the universe as pluralistic
pro - settles disputes that are otherwise interminable
con - "muddled thinking", erases the distinction between the mind and universe
Logical Positivism (pro/con)
philisophical school of thought, associated with Carnap and Ayer, that claims that only analytic and empirically verifiable statements are meaningful and that becuase metaphysical and ethical statements are neither, the latter are meaningless
[2 kinds of meaningful statements - 1) tautologies or "relations of ideas" and 2) empirical hypothese or "statements of fact]
pro - settles disputes between idealists and materialists like pragmatism
con - the argument is considered "metaphysical, religious, ethical and aesthetis statements are not meaningful statements" bc not empirically verifiable
doctrine that objects of our sense exist independently of their being experienced
[Goodman, Putnam, Spender]
[Searle - against anti realism]
the doctrine that the objects of our senses do not exist independently of our perceptions, beliefs, concepts, and language
pro - we construct reality. we make what we find.
con - feminists say if men see us as lesser, then that would mean we are. therefore we cannot fault them for treating us that way. if women do not believe they are being oppressed and exploited, then they are not.
[Newton & LaPlace]
the theory that everything that occurs happens in accordance with some regular pattern or law; the view that human actions are completely determined by prior events
causal detrminism rules out human freedom and personal responsibility - humans are not free nor are they responsible for their actions
view that rejects the idea that determinism rules out freedom and responsibility and that argues instead that causal determinism is compatible with freedom
pro - redefines "freedom" - the person who is free is simply not impeded by external restraints or confinements, defends moral responsibility
con - if we are not free to act against our desires, then isn't there still a clear sense in which we are not free?
the view that determinism is false and that people are free to choose to act other than they do; in social philosophy, the view that the right to freedom from restraint takes priority over all other rights
[based on theis experience of ourselves as conscious, we are indeed free]
con - denies the freedom that we all directly experience when we choose
[Kant on belief based on morality]
doctrines of a religion about the universe and one's relation to the supernatural
[God is defined into existence - IF a triangle exists it has 3 sides, but who's to say we can't reject the triangle along with it's 3 sides]
an argument for the existence of God based on the nature of God's being
- "i believe in order that i may understand"
- Kant disagrees - reject the triangle
rational study of God, including religious doctrines
the belief in a personal God who intervenes in the lives of the creation
pro - universe had to have a starting point
con - big bang theory
argument for the existence of God that claims that there must be an ultimate causal explanation for why the universe as a totality exists
Pro - cause and effect would be eliminated if cause and effect is true, there was a first cause
con - doesn't prove the Christian God - NEwton's first law of motion, without intervention an object will continue on
argument forth the existence of God that claims that the order and purpose manifest in the working of things in the universe require a God (divine watch-maker)
paley saw purpose in nature, darwin saw only order
a view that there is a single God
the belief that God is both fixed and unchanging, inclusive of all possibilities
belief that Everything is God
[If God is everything, He can't be separated from anything - are we separate from God?]
denial of theism; the view that God or a god doesn't exist
[why all the suffering if God is all powerful and all loving?]
Problem of Evil
theists explain away evil as something beyond our comprehension
the purpose of life is not human happiness but to know more about God then trials do serve a purpose
cannot be confirmed or denied because of human emotion - many argue that it was just something we felt because we wanted to
A claim of ignorance particularly of religious matters; the claim that God's existence can be neither proved nor disproved
[it is wrong to believe unless one has evidence that logically justifies belief, so he suspended judgement - Freud says that belief is an illusion depended upon by people needing to feel protected]
James on "the will to believe"
under certain conditions it is both rationally and morally permissible to believe something without adequate intellectual evidence for the belief
when an option is "genuine" - a "living, monumentous, and forced" - option that "by its nature cannot be decided on intelletual grounds,' it is legitimate (not wrong) to choose on the basis of our "passional nature," even without sufficient evidence in support of the option we choose
James on the mystical experience
- 2 common characteristics:
- 1) ineffability - the experience defies expression
- 2) noetic quality - to the individual the experience appears to be knowledge
the direct experience of God or of an ultimate religious reality; the belief that such subjective religious experiences are genuine
belief that God is not among other beings but an aspect of reality
[Christian out of tradition, views God as a being and not as being itself]
using pronouns such as HE and HIM for God is oppressive to women - also that Eve was taken from Adam and not vice versa. Eve tempted Adam.
affirms 4 values; in order of increasing importance: wealth, pleasure, duty and enlightment
Brahman as the only reality and all else is illusion; atman is the Hindy doctrine of no self
The Hindu law of sowing and reaping; the law that, according to Hinduism, determines that the form and circumstances we assume in each reincarnated state depoend upon our actions in prior incarnations
the moral doctrine whereby self-frustration is ended
transcendental wisdom that answers all questions we can formulate about our spiritual life
- upholds the direct experience of reality
- does not tolerate 2nd hand accounts
- emphasizes the avoidance of words and concepts, the understanding of Mind and its oneness with nature and attaining elightentment through this understanding
- emphasizes 4 noble truths
- 1) all life is sorrow
- 2) sorrow arises from craving
- 3) stopping craving will stop sorrow
- 4) the Nobel Eightfold Path will stop craving (right views, right resolve,, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness & right concentration)
ignorance and unawareness
result of a person who tries to control himself and the environment - round of birth and death
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