Artic Test 2.txt

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ggarriott
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Artic Test 2.txt
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2011-03-04 16:56:25
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Articulation Test
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Articulation Test 2
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  1. True or false:
    Ethnicity, cultural background, and language status are interrelated.
    True
  2. T/F:
    Ethnic background is not a significant factor for linguistic diversity.
    True
  3. Are ASL and English the same?
    No
  4. SLPs can/or can’t treat children speaking English as a second language unless have specific training in ESL
    Can'T
  5. What are the four major groups we have descriptive research on?
    • AFrican American
    • Native American
    • Spanish
    • Asian
  6. What is the origin of African American English (AAE)?
    West Africa
  7. What is a simplified and limited communication system between two communities with no common language?
    Pidgin
  8. What is more complex system with its own phonological, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic rules (used when it starts being passed down to children)?
    Creole
  9. What is changing from one dialect or speech pattern to another based on the situation and the communication partner?
    code switching
  10. AAE has it's own ____ and ____rules.
    phonological and syntactic
  11. What is changing a diphthong to a vowel?
    ungliding
  12. What position do speakers of AAE have the most differences with?
    medial and final
  13. Which of the following is not likely found as a type of word-final consonant ommisions in AAE English?
    Final consonant is a nasal
    Final consonant is a stop
    Final consonant is an affricate
    When the following word begins with a consonant
    affricate
  14. Where would a conosonant cluster reduction most often occur in AAE?
    final
  15. Initial clusters may have sound ___________ in AAE. “strike” becomes “skrike"
    substitutions
  16. Which three occur most frequently in unstressed syllable deletion in AAE?
    w
    1-when the syllable is a single vowel
    2-when the preceding word ends in a vowel
    3-when the proceeding word ends in a vowel
    4- in prepositions or conjunctions
    • when the syllable is a single vowel
    • Preceding word ends in a vowel
    • Prepositions or conjunctions
  17. Speakers of ____________ would show these error patterns:
    Metathesis “aks”
    Devoicing final voiced consonants/i/ for /e/ substitution: “pin” substituted for “pen”
    /b/ for /v/ in the initial position
    “in” substituted for “ing”
    AFrican American English
  18. Children of AAE and English show similar________
    sound inventories
  19. Which phonological process carries on later in AAE?
    final consonant deletion
  20. When Interpreting data for AAE speakers what is the criteria needed?
    • Look at the Articulatory acquisition in all children
    • and the Characteristics of African American English
  21. There are currently ____________ native american people in the US.
    2.7 million
  22. THere are currently ______ Native American reservations and ______ Alaskan indigenous villages
    • 278 reservations
    • 209 villages
  23. How many tribal groups are there?
    500
  24. How many NAmerican languages are there
    200-800
  25. Many NA languages are extinct...how many languages are spoken by more than 1000 people?
    50
  26. What two things are unclear when looking at NA languages?
    Language classification system and Origins
  27. Which language group appears to have languages that belong to different language families with no genetic link and the languages are undergoing changes?
  28. Native American
  29. NA languages may have _____ sounds than English and Vowels may be _______
    fewer; nasalized
  30. Meaning contrasts in NA languages may be produced by changes in ____,_______,______
    pitch, tone or length
  31. Some Native American languages have_______
    voiceless vowels
  32. What is the most common sound in NA?
    glottal stops
  33. In the Navajo language there are fewer _______, and none in syllable _____ positions
    consonant clusters ; final
  34. Most NA languages spoken by
    ______people and in Oklahoma, only 2 of ____languages are passed onto children
    older, 23
  35. Which language is now acquired second after English?
    NAmerican
  36. How many latino people are in the US?
    35 million
  37. What are the three major Hispanic groups in the US?
    Mexican Puerto Rican Caribbean (Cuban)
  38. English has ____ vowels, Spanish has ____vowels
    15 vowels , 5vowels
  39. English has 24 consonants—Spanish has _____ consonants
    18
  40. Which four phonemes don't occur in Spanish?
    /v,z/ voiceless and voiced "th" and "zh"
  41. What four English phonemes occur in final position in Spanish?
    /s, n, r, l, d/
  42. The English initial _____cluster does not occur in Spanish and Spanish rarely has a final ______
    • /s/ cluster
    • consonant cluster
  43. What are some common substitutions that Spanish speakers make when speaking English?
    • [b/v] ,
    • /t/ for voiceless “th”
    • /d/ voiced th, or /a/ voiced th
    • Substitute y for /d3/ (judge)
    • “ch” substituted for “sh”
  44. What type of "r" do Spanish speakers use?
    trilled
  45. Final consonants are often __________ when Spanish speakers speak English.
    devoiced
  46. Spanish speakers often Deaspirate English______ and omit initial ______
    stops; initial /h/
  47. How do Spanish speakers speaking English tend to produce /t, d, n/ ?
    more dentally
  48. Which place in the mouth do Spanish speakers generally produce /s/?
    more anteriorly
  49. /N/ tends to sound like _______ in Spanish/English.
    "ny"
  50. Most Spanish vowels are mastered by _____
    18 months
  51. Most Spanish phonemes mastered by age _____
    4
  52. Dialectical features appear at age _____ in Spanish speakers
    3
  53. Spanish speakers in early elementary years still have difficulty with ______,_____,_____,_____
    fricatives, affricates, liquids, consonant clusters
  54. Vowels errors on _____ are most frequent in Spanish/English.
    /0/
  55. what phonological process persists longer in Spanish speaking children than in English speaking children ?
    unstressed syllable deletion
  56. some Asian languages are ________
    monosyllabic
  57. Asian languages often delete these three aspects of speech:
    • final consonants
    • syllables
    • /r/
  58. Asian languages often confuse these four English speech sounds:
    /r/ and /l/ and “ch” and “sh”
  59. Asian languages often reduce___________
    vowel length
  60. What types of substitutions are common in Asian languages?
    • /d/ or /z/ substituted for voiced “th”
    • /t/ or /s/ substituted for voiceless ‘th”
  61. What are the two Chinese dialects?
    Mandarin and Cantonese
  62. Chinese is a __________language.
    tonal
  63. Mandarin has 2 ___________, Cantonese has 7 ______
    final consonants
  64. There are no________________in Chinese.
    consonant blends
  65. 3 distinctive features of South Asian languages are?
    • Aspirated stops
    • Retroflex production of several English consonants
    • No difference between /v/ and /w/
  66. South Asian Languages are _______ (no difference between spelling and punctuation)
    phonetic
  67. There are major differences in tone and rhythm in this language?
    south Asian
  68. Is Vietnamese monosyllabic or multisyllabic?
    monosyllabic
  69. Only voiceless stops and ________ appear as final consonants in Vietnamese and there are no _____________
    nasals; no consonant blends
  70. Do the Vietnamese focus on syllable stress?
    no
  71. This tonal language has different vowel stress and speakers often have difficulty with final consonants and consonant clusters?
    Hmong
  72. Which of these are not tonal languages?
    Chinese
    Vietnamese
    Thai
    Khmer
    • Khmer
    • Japanese
  73. ______is Derived from the languages of India and French
    Khmer
  74. In Thai all consonants are used in ______ position
    initial
  75. Thai speakers often put stress on this syllable.
    final
  76. What language has 75 sub languages, and the main one is Tagalog?
    Filipino
  77. Which language has no consonant clusters in word initial or final position?
    Korean
  78. Fricatives and ________ are only in initial position in the Korean language.
    affricates
  79. Korean language tends to sound _______
    monotone
  80. Japanese has _______ vowels and some may be devoiced in some contexts and only one final consonant which is _________.
    • 5 vowels
    • /n/
  81. Which language may add a vowel to words ending in consonants.
    Japanese
  82. How many vowels does Arabic have?
    6
  83. These sounds are produced with the tongue root retracted toward the posterior wall of the pharynx thus giving a lot of stress to the consonant
    emphatic
  84. Which consonants may be absent in Arabic?
    /p/ and /v/
  85. How is /r/ produced in Arabic?
    like a tap
  86. Are written and spoken Arabic the same?
    no they may be different
  87. ________ speaking children acquire phonemes faster than English children.
    Cantonese
  88. _____________should be the primary source of information about phonology when assessing for bideialectical vs. bilingual.
    conversational speech patterns
  89. FLATC stands for
    FISHER-LOGEMANN TEST OF ARTICULATION COMPETENCE
  90. This test looks at all positions, manner, place, and voice, with about 3 pictures on each page and each picture focuses on one phoneme. It also is an older test. What is the name of this test?
    FISHER-LOGEMANN TEST OF ARTICULATION COMPETENCE (FLTAC
  91. (GFTA-2) stands for?
    GOLDMAN FRISTOE TEST OF ARTICULATION 2ND EDITION
  92. this test is time efficient because each colored picture can have multiple targets, and it is a flip chart style. Which test is this?
    GOLDMAN FRISTOE TEST OF ARTICULATION 2ND EDITION (GFTA-2
  93. PAT-III stands for?
    PHOTO ARTICULATION TEST 3rd EDITION
  94. This test consists of 9 photographs per page. It only assesses single words and it each position (initial, medial, final) for each phoneme. You can pick from two forms: cards or booklet. Which test is this?
    PHOTO ARTICULATION TEST 3rd EDITION (PAT-III)
  95. (AAPS)-3
    ARIZONA ARTICULATION PROFICIENCY SCALE
  96. This test has one black line drawing per page, and it only tests initial and final positions. It has a single word version and sentence word version. It also may ask more than one prompt per page.
    ARIZONA ARTICULATION PROFICIENCY SCALE (AAPS)-3
  97. Which test is good for non native speakers of English?
    ARIZONA ARTICULATION PROFICIENCY SCALE (AAPS)-3
  98. Which test has seperate scores for male and female?
    ARIZONA ARTICULATION PROFICIENCY SCALE (AAPS)-3
  99. WCAT
    WEISS COMPREHENSIVE ARTICULATION TEST
  100. This test has one colored picture and phoneme per page. It has sentence closure tasks. And it tests single word, sentence, and connected speech.
    WCAT--WEISS COMPREHENSIVE ARTICULATION TEST
  101. (SPAT-DII)
    STRUCTURED PHOTOGRAPHIC ARTICULATION TEST…FEATURING DUDSBERRY II
  102. This test features photographs of "Dudsberry". It has a color coded response sheet, and it tests Consonant classifications, inventory, manner, connected speech, word level phonological processes (articulation and phonological processes)
    STRUCTURED PHOTOGRAPHIC ARTICULATION TEST…FEATURING DUDSBERRY II (SPAT-DII)
  103. This test takes into account dialectal differences?
    STRUCTURED PHOTOGRAPHIC ARTICULATION TEST…FEATURING DUDSBERRY II (SPAT-DII)
  104. T-MAC)
    TEST OF MINIMAL ARTICULATION COMPETENCE (
  105. This test is appropriate for Ages 3-Adult. It has multiple black line drawings per page and has three versions: screening version (3-5 minutes), reading version, and sentence version
    TEST OF MINIMAL ARTICULATION COMPETENCE (T-MAC)
  106. (KLPA-2)
    KAHN LEWIS PHONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS-2
  107. This is not a test, and it is based on whole word transcription of GFTA-2 (Goldman Frisco.) It focuses on developmental phonological process profile and Phonetic inventory.
    KAHN LEWIS PHONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS-2 (KLPA-2)
  108. (APP-R)
    ASSESSMENT OF PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES-REVISED
  109. Has lots of objects and pictures, not all stimuli provided and no normative information. Designed for preschool and elementary children. Not standardized.Best used as analysis for intervention rather than placement
    ASSESSMENT OF PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES-REVISED (APP-R)
  110. Which five tests are most often used?
    • APP-R-KLPA
    • GFTA
    • PAT-E
    • SPAT-DII
    • AAPS-3
  111. Which test is rarely used anymore?
    WCAT
  112. Which three tests are best for adults?
    • PAT III
    • AAPS-3
    • T-MAC
  113. Which tests have the stimulability feature?
    • WCAT
    • T-MAC
    • GFTA
  114. Which test is not appropriate for adults?
    GFTA
  115. Which tests use sentence closure format?
    • WCAT
    • SPAT-DII
  116. Which tests look at consonants, vowels, dipthongs?
    • PAT-III
    • AAPS-3
    • T-MAC
  117. What is it called when a child learns two langs. at once?
    simultaneous bilingualism
  118. What is it called when a child learns one language and then another later?
    successive bilingualism
  119. What two major errors do we see with bilingual children?
    substituting similar sounds from their language and ommitting sounds because they don't occur in the first lang.
  120. What is interference?
    Producing sounds in the second lang. but they sound more like native sounds
  121. What is it called when two sounds don't have a difference in native lang. but they do in English and they are hard to distinguish?
    underdifferentiation
  122. What is called when a non-native Eng. speaker overarticulates a sound..usually allophones?
    overdifferentiated
  123. What is considered the critical age for learning two languages?
    birth-puberty
  124. Structural abnormalities may prevent lip __________ or _________.
    • Approximation
    • Rounding
  125. Adequately repaired clefts, or surgically altered lip structures may not significantly impact _________.
    Intelligibility
  126. Teeth are significant articulators for what 3 places of articulation?
    • Labiodentals
    • Linguadentals
    • Ligua-alveolars (upper teeth)
  127. What is the general term for misalignment of dental arches?
    Malocclusion
  128. What is the class/term for normal dental arch alignment?
    Class I--Neutrocclusion
  129. Malocclusion where the front teeth are in atypically positioned but molar alignment is normal?
    Class I--Malocclusion
  130. What is the dental occlusion class/term for overbite?
    Class II Distocclusion--Retrognathism
  131. What is the dental occlusion class/term for underbite?
    Class III Mesiocclusion--Prognathism
  132. What are 3 functions do you assess in oral-peripheral exam for lips?
    • Pucker
    • Retract
    • Side to Side
  133. Short Lingual Frenum
    Ankyloglossia
  134. Total or partial removal of diseased tongue.
    Glossectomy
  135. Hard palate clefts are usually repaired within the first ___ years of life.
    2
  136. What prosthetic device that is attached to molars helps with eating and accurate speech production?
    Palatal Lift
  137. What physiological mechanism connects (couples) or disconnects (uncouples) the oral and anasal cavities?
    Velopharyngeal mechanism
  138. What anatomical structure maintains oral resonance, prevents unwanted nasal resonance and builds intraoral air pressure?
    Velopharyngeal Port Closure
  139. What are are pressure consonants?
    • Stops
    • Fricatives
    • Affricates
  140. What specific difficulties are associated with Velopharyngeal Inadequacy (difficulty closing nasal port)?
    • Intra-Oral air pressure building
    • Air leaks through nasal cavity
    • Pressure consonants (weak production)
  141. Correct or markedly improved production of sounds through unusual methods of articulation by a child with defective speech structures.
    Compensatory Patterns
  142. What distinctive feature is a common compensatory pattern for someone with velopharyngeal inadequacy?
    Back feature--moving consonant production posteriorly (backing)
  143. Client with velopharyngeal inadequacy may produce glottal stop substitutions for what phonemes?
    • /p/
    • /b/
    • /t/
    • /d/
  144. Client with velopharyngeal inadequacy may produce pharyngeal stop for what phonemes?
    • /k/
    • /g/
  145. What place of articulation might a client with velopharyngeal inadequacy may produce fricatives and affricates?
    Linguavelar Pharyngeal (everything moves back and down)
  146. What manner/place phonemes are substituted for sibilants and sound like a stop in clients with velopharyngeal inadequacy?
    Velar fricatives /k/ and /g/
  147. Mid-dorsum palatal stops are commonly substituted for what phonemes in clients with velopharyngeal inadequacy?
    • /t/
    • /d/
    • /k/
    • /g/
  148. Audible air leaking through the nose
    Nasal emission (nasal snort)
  149. In clients with velopharyngeal inadequacy, what oral sounds are associated with hypernasality?
    Vowel Prolongation
  150. To summarize, what 3 compensatory patterns are most associated with velopharyngeal inadequacy?
    • Sound Substitutions with unusual methods of production
    • Pressure Consonants are weak
    • Nasal Emission
  151. Central or Peripheral Nervous System (or both) damage is the cause of what disorder?
    Dysarthria
  152. What disorder in children is known as a nonprogressive neurological disorder?
    Cerebral Palsy
  153. What disorder is caused by damage to the motor programming areas of speech?
    Apraxia
  154. Childhood motor speech disorder affecting the motor programming of the articulators affecting articulation and prosody.
    Childhood apraxia or Developmental apraxia
  155. What's the difference between childhood and adult apraxia?
    No neuropathology/lesions in childhood apraxia
  156. Integrity of the ________ mechanism is essential for typical acquisition and production of speech sounds.
    Neuromuscular
  157. Speed at which a speaker can repeat selected syllables (puh-tuh-kuh)
    Diadochokinetic rate
  158. What percent of school children may have some degree of hearing loss?
    2-3%
  159. Normal hearing children have what advantages?
    • Aware of S-L in their environment
    • Self-monitoring ability
  160. How well someone's auditory mechanism works
    Hearing Acuity
  161. Hearing problem (2-3 % school children)
    Hearing Impairment/Loss
  162. Person with a hearing loss within the range of 25 dB to 95 dB; has residual hearing that is somewhat useful in assisting in communication.
    Hard of Hearing
  163. Person whose hearing loss typically exceeds 70 dB and who cannot hear or understand conversational speech under normal circumstances.
    Deaf
  164. Hearing loss present at birth
    Congenital
  165. Hearing loss where the onset is after birth
    Acquired
  166. Persistent ear infections affect ________ sounds particularly in the _______ positions.
    • Voiceless
    • Final
  167. A common error in children with ear infections is to omit _____ consonants or substitute them with the ___ phoneme.
    • Intial
    • /h/
  168. In regard to nasal sounds, children with ear infections tend to produce what common errors?
    • Denasalize nasals
    • Nasal Substitutions (/d/ for /n/)
  169. What common error pattern may be retained after ear infection has cleared up?
    Nasal substitutions
  170. What dB of hearing is considered Normal (children/adults)?
    • 0-15 dB--Children
    • 0-25 dB--Adults
  171. Slight hearing loss (dB)
    16-25 dB
  172. Mild hearing loss (dB)
    26-40 dB
  173. Moderate hearing loss (dB)
    41-70 dB
  174. Severe hearing loss (dB)
    71-90 dB
  175. Profound hearing loss (dB)
    91+ dB
  176. With hearing loss, there is often omission of the ______ and ______ consonants.
    • Intial
    • Final
  177. With hearing loss, there is often weak consonant production in the ________ position.
    Final
  178. With hearing loss, there is often _______ substitutions, and ________ & _________confusion.
    • Vowel substitutions
    • Voicing confusion
    • Nasality confusion
  179. Typical deaf sounding speech is due to ___________.
    Hypernasality
  180. With hearing loss, there is often insertion of _________ _______ (may be artifact of how these are learned)
    Unnecessary Vowels
  181. With hearing loss, speakers tend to speak at a _______ rate and with more ________.
    • Slower
    • Pauses
  182. With hearing loss, speakers tend to have slow articulatory _________.
    Transitions
  183. Speakers with hearing loss tend to speak using inappropriate _______.
    Pitch
  184. Speakers with hearing loss tend to have many errors in ______.
    Prosody
  185. Ability to distinguish between sounds
    Auditory Discrimination
  186. In Discrimination training, better discrimination is achieved but not better ____________.
    Production
  187. Which type of training with speakers of hearing loss results in better discrimination and production?
    Production training
  188. Speakers with hearing loss should receive which training first discrimination or production?
    • Production
    • (probe for discrimination after)
  189. What test of oral sensation places a 3-D object in client's mouth and asks them to identify from a group of pictures what shape they have in their mouth?
    Oral Form Recognition
  190. What test of oral sensation stimulates the tongue at two points?
    2-Point Sensory Discrimination
  191. What type of test of oral sensation studies the effects of sensory deprivation in articulation?
    Anesthetized
  192. 1. Fricative & Affricate misarticulation
    2. Tongue Retroflexion & Lip Rounding difficulties
    3. Posterior Positioning of articulators
    4. Duration increases in Consonants
    5. Air Pressure increases intraorally
    are all associated with what type of test study in adults?
    Anesthetized
  193. Patients with ________ deficits may be tested using a anesthetized study because it indicates their potential for ________.
    • Neurological
    • Treatment
  194. What percentage of preschool children with one disorder have a co-existing one?
    40-80%
  195. Children with _________ disorders produce less complex language, shorter utterances, and incomplete sentences.
    Articulation
  196. Increases in ________ results in increase in errors as well (consonant clusters).
    Complexity
  197. In children with S-L disorder reading may be impacted; what is most affected?
    Phonological Awareness
  198. To determine impact of S-L disorder on reading, __________ should be viewed separate from __________.
    • Articulation
    • Language
  199. Intelligence shows to have an impact on language skills; what scoring individuals have higher prevalence of articulation disorders?
    Below normal IQ
  200. What's the significance of birth order and number of siblings on language skills?
    • First born & Only child speak better
    • Siblings spaced further apart may speak better
  201. What factors are associated with familial prevalence of articulation disorders?
    • "Speech families"
    • Siblings of child w/ artic disorders do poorly on tests
    • Children of parents w/ artic disorders do poorly on test
  202. Pattern of deviant or reverse swallow in which the position of the tongue at rest is foward and often protrudes.
    Tongue Thrust
  203. Tongue thrust is considered typical in children younger than ___ so most often is not treated until child is older.
    5
  204. Phonological process of tongue thrusters during speech where the tongue comes out and is seen or between the teeth (looks like a lizard)?
    Fronting
  205. What are the 2 types of tongue thrusting?
    • Functional (habitual)
    • Organic (tonsils, allergies, etc.)
  206. Tongue position of tongue thrusters may result in what dental abnormality?
    Malocclusions
  207. Tongue thrusting can cause an articulation disorder-lisp, what production errors often occur but may not affect acoustic properties?
    • /z/ & /l/ Distortions
    • /t/ /d/ /n/ & /l/ Interdental Productions
  208. In what setting is tongue thrust treatment not typically provided?
    Public School
  209. In screening assessment, a _______ score suggests no further assessment needed
    Pass
  210. In screening assessment, a _______ score suggests neef forfurther assessment.
    Fail
  211. Nonstandardized procedures of assessment may use specific questions designed to elicit ________ verbal utterances.
    Spontaneous
  212. When having clients read selected passages for assessment purposes, we must be aware of their ______ and ______ level.
    • Vision
    • Education
  213. What must we have before we ever see a client?
    Written Case History
  214. That kind of info is in a case hx?
    • Gender
    • Age
    • Medical Hx
    • Developmental Hx
    • Potential problems (articulation, voice, fluency, etc)
    • Child's reaction to the problem
    • Associated factors (attributing or causing problem)
  215. What must we have before getting either oral or written information from other professionals?
    HIPAA release form (privacy)
  216. What type of questions are employed during the opening interview with client or guardian?
    Open-Ended
  217. Asking a client to look at a picture and tell us what it is would be an example of what type of allowable prompt in evoking response during standardized testing?
    Spontaneous
  218. If a client responds with a word other than the target desired, a prompt such as "That's right that is a bunny; another name for this animal is a rabbit; can you tell me what this is?" would be an example of what type of prompt?
    Delayed Imitation Task
  219. If a target word has not been elicited from either Spontaneous or Delayed Imitation Task, what is the last resulting prompt an SLP may employ when standardized testing?
    Immediate (Direct) Imitation
  220. When response recording, what are the 3 types of speech sound disorders?
    • Distortion
    • Substitution
    • Omission
    • (Addition)--not typically seen in functional disorders
  221. What are additional factors that should be considered before choosing a test for standardized testing?
    • Age
    • Time of administration
    • Type of score needed
    • Other variables (ex. interests of the client)
  222. What are 3 benefits of using whole word phonetic transcription?
    • More than one sound can be analyzed
    • Phonetic context is considered looking for pattern
    • Phonological processes may more likely be identified
  223. In O-P exam, what type of facial characteristics are noted?
    • Assymetry
    • Lesions
  224. What tasks do we ask client to perform with their lips during O-P exam?
    • Pucker (Kiss)
    • Retract (Grin)
    • Side-to Side ("church lady" on SNL)
  225. What do we test in re: to the tongue during O-P exam?
    • Elevate without moving mandible
    • Tongue strength (depressor)
    • Diadochokinetic rate ("puh-teh-kah")
  226. In O-P exam, what is the method for assessing the occlusion of the teeth?
    • Retracting cheek with tongue blade
    • Shining flashlight to exam molar alignment
  227. What abnormality of the velum suggests that something did not fuse when the skull was being developed?
    Bifed Uvula
  228. What abnormality is assessed when eliciting the gag reflex in the O-P exam?
    Velopharyngeal Insufficiency (VPI)
  229. What abnormality of the hard palate may be present if you note what looks like a dark spot on the palate?
    Submucous cleft
  230. Hole that has not closed after cleft palate surgery
    Oronasal Fistulae
  231. When examining the tonsils and fauces of the pharynx during O-P exam what might we be looking for?
    • Scarring
    • White spots
  232. Extent to which a misarticulated sound can be produced correctly by imitation or other cues.
    Stimulability
  233. In what segments of speech production can stimulability be tested?
    • Isolation
    • Syllables
    • Words
    • Sentences

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