clin path urinalysis

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clin path urinalysis
2011-03-04 16:00:02
clin path urinalysis

clin path urinalysis
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  1. urinalysis
    provides information of the state of the kidneys and the animal's ability to normally filter and excrete metabolites
  2. free flow (clean catch)
    collect midstream, clean vulva or prepuce first, not good for bacterial culture
  3. cyctocentesis
    needle into abdominal wall, aseptic technique, full bladder only and empty completely, urine cultures
  4. catheter
    pass a rubber, plastic of metal catheter through urethra into bladder, do as asceptically as possible
  5. manual expression
    obtain a midstream sample, clean vulva and prepuce, not food for bacterial cultures, and never do if obstructed or pregnant
  6. qualitative analysis
    looking for the presence of cells
  7. quantitative analysis
    looking for amounts of cells
  8. physical exam of urine (gross exam), chemical exam of urine, microscopic exam of urine
    three portions of urinalysis
  9. 12-20 ml or urine/lb/day
    normal urine volume
  10. polyuria
    increased volume of urine production. decreased specific gravity, increased water consumption
  11. pollakiuria
    refers with frequent urination, often confused with polyuria by clients, indicates nephritis or diabetes
  12. oliguria
    decreased volume of urine production
  13. anuria
    complete absence of urine formation or elimination
  14. light amber or straw color
    normal urine color in domestic animals
  15. pale yellow or colorless
    renal disease, excess water intake, diabetes, pyometra
  16. dark yellow/yellow brown
    decreased fluid intake, dehydration, fever (urine color)
  17. yellow brown, green yellow
    bile pigments present (urine color)
  18. red or brown
    if cloudy (hematuria) if translucent (hemoglobinuria), urine color
  19. brown or brown/black
    hemoglobin and large amounts of bile, urine color
  20. green
    drugs or bile pigments, urine color
  21. clear
    should be normal if fresh (except horses), transparency or urine
  22. cloudy
    may become cloudy after standing, may contain cellular debris
  23. urochromes
    yellow color in urine is due to these pigments
  24. specific gravity
    the density of a quantity of liquid as compared to distilled water, it measures dissolved solids
  25. 1.025, 1.030
    normal specific gravity for a dog and cat
  26. 1.001, 1.060, 1.000
    specific gravity or dilute, concentrated and distilled water
  27. refractometer
    place one drop of urine on _____ and close lid and hold to the light
  28. urinometer
    fill with urine and spin to read. read at the bottom of the meniscus. need large volume of urine
  29. reagent strips
    dip strips into the urine and read. least reliable. compare color change
  30. alkaline urine (7-8.5)
    herbivore urine pH
  31. acidic urine (6-7)
    carnivore urine pH
  32. 5.2-6.8
    normal dog urine pH
  33. 6-7
    normal cat urine pH
  34. 7-8.5
    horse and cow normal urine pH
  35. 6-8.5
    pig normal urine pH
  36. 4.8-7.5
    man normal urine pH
  37. proteinuria
    abnormal levels of protein in the urine, false positives found in alkaline urine
  38. glucosuria or glycosuria
    glucose in the urine, normal urine is negative, acetaminophen will cause false positives
  39. acetone, acetoacetic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid
    three types of ketones, normals animals have small amounts
  40. hematuria, hemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria
    tests for blood in the urine detect these
  41. hematuria
    presence of intact red blood cells in the urine, sign of disease in the urogenital tract
  42. hemoglobinuria
    the presence of free hemoglobin in the urine (the separation of hemoglobin from the RBC)
  43. myoglobinuria
    the presence of myoglobin in the urine, caused by muscle damage
  44. bilirubinuria
    bilirubin in the urine, normal in dogs, can be detected with the Ictotest, false negative from exposure to sunlight
  45. 5ml for 3-5 min at 1000-2000rpm
    centrifuging the sample
  46. unstained
    casts and crystals are best visualized on the _____ slide
  47. stained
    cells, organisms and sperm are best visualized on the _____ slide
  48. 2-3 RBCs/HPF
    normal value of RBC in urine
  49. over 5 RBC/HPF
    abnormal value of RBC in urine
  50. pyuria, leukocyturia
    excessive WBC's found in the urine (pus in the urine)
  51. 2-3 WBC's/HPF, greater than 5
    normal and abnormal WBC's found in the urine
  52. squamous, transitional, renal
    three types of epithelial cells
  53. 0-1/HPF
    transitional epithelial cells normal range, increased numbers suggest cystitis or pyelonephritis
  54. 0-1/HPF
    renal epithelial cells normal range, increased numbers indicate kidney disease
  55. casts
    formed in the lumen of the distal and collecting tubules of the kidney, abnormals levels indicate a lesion on the renal tubules
  56. hyaline casts
    highly refractile casts, indicates renal irritation, fever, exercise
  57. granular casts
    most common type of cast, in large numbers can indicate acute nephritis and severe kidney damage
  58. epithelial casts
    comprised of epithelial cells, can indicate acute nephritis and degeneration of the renal tubules
  59. leukocyte casts
    casts combining WBC's, indicates inflammation in the renal tubules
  60. erythrocyte casts
    appear deep yellow or orange, indicates bleeding from the kidney
  61. waxy casts
    resemble hyaline casts but wider and with square ends, indicates chronic and severe degeneration of the renal tubules
  62. fatty casts
    casts containing small droplets of fat that look like refractile bodies, indicates chronic and severe degeneration of the renal tubules
  63. brownian movement
    bacteria will appear moving because of this type of movement, reported as few, moderate or many
  64. round (cocci) or rod (bacilli)
    two shapes of bacteria
  65. yeast
    often confused with RBC's, yeast are usually contaminants, rare
  66. crystalluria
    presence of crystals in the urine, reported as occasional, moderate or many
  67. triple phosphate, 'coffin lids', struvites crystals
    found in alkaline urine, 3-6 sides, colorless prisms
  68. amorphous phosphate and urates crystals
    found in alkaline urine and are granular and found in acidic urine
  69. calcium oxylate crystals
    small colorless envelope, usually with an X in the center, found in acid urine, seen in ethylene glycol toxicity (6-18 hours past ingestion)
  70. envelope shape, sometimes dumbell or ring formed
    calcium oxylate shapes
  71. leucine crystals
    small, round, sectioned centered (grapefruit), found in acidic urine
  72. tyrocine crystals
    speculated and spindled, found in acidic urine
  73. cystine crystals
    hexagon shaped (6 sides), may indicate renal tubular dysfunction, found in acidic urine
  74. parasite ova
    seen in urine sediment of animals with urinary parasites or because of fecal contamination at time of collection
  75. capillaria plica, dioctophyma renale, stephanurus dentatus
    types of parasite ova
  76. capillaria plica
    bladder worm of dogs and cats
  77. dioctophyma renale
    kidney worm of dogs
  78. stephanurus dentatus
    kidney worm of pigs