blood ch 19 m flashcards.txt

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  1. blood functions
    • 1. transportation of gases, nutrients & hormones
    • 2. regulation of pH, body temp
    • 3. protection through clotting, WBC
  2. blood components
    formed elements: RBC, WBC, Platelets
  3. RBCs
    • contain hemoglobin
    • Prod = destruction of at least 2mil new RBC's per SECOND
    • glycolipids in membrane responsible for ABO & Rh types
    • lack nucleus & other organelles such as mitochondria
  4. Hemoglobin
    • IRON can combine Reversibly w/ OXYGEN
    • transports 23% of total CO2
    • NOxide binds to hemoglobin, releasing NO causing vasodilation..improving blood flow and oxygen delivery
  5. RBC lifecycle
    • 120 days
    • Globin, Iron are reused
    • Heme ends up in urine or feces
  6. WBCs
    • have Nuclei, NO hemoglobin
    • two types:
    • granular: neutro, baso, eosinophils
    • Agranular: lymphocytes & monocytes
  7. Do elements divide once they leave bone marrow
    No, except for lymphocytes
  8. Neutro & macrophages
    • Active phagocytes
    • Attracted by CHEMOTAXIS
  9. neutrophils
    • use LYSOZYMES to kill bacteria
    • Small in #, but act QUICKLY
  10. monocytes
    • differentiate into macrophages to destroy microbes
    • large in #'s, but take LONGer to arrive
  11. Leukopenia
    DECREASE in WBC's :(
  12. basophils
    • release heparin, histamine, seratonin
    • intensify inflammatory reaction
  13. eosinophils
    • releases enzymes (histaminase) which attack parasitic worms
    • leave capillaries and enter TISSUE fluid
  14. lymphocytes components
    • B-cells: destroy bacteria & toxins
    • T-cells: attack viruses, fungi, cancer & some bac
    • NK cells: attack wide variety of microbes
  15. Platelets/Thrombocytes
    • help stop blood loss by clotting
    • short lifespan of 5-9 days
  16. STEM cell transplants (2 types)
    • Bone marrow: replaces bone marrow with healthy individual, taking 2-3 weeks for enough WBC's to be produced
    • Cord-blood: stem cells taken from umbilical cord before birth, can be stored indefinitely
  17. Bone marrow transplant risks
    Graft-vs HOST disease: the red bone marrow transplanted produces T-cells that attack host tissues
  18. Hemostasis
    • A sequence of 3 things that occur to STOP bleeding
    • 1. vascular spasm: smooth muscles in artery CONTRACT
    • 2. platelet PLUG formation: platelets accumulate in large #'s
    • 3. blood clotting
  19. Blood group
    • Determined by the presence (or absence) of ANTIGENS
    • At least 24 Blood groups and over 100Antigens
  20. Blood Groups: ABO
    • ABO: if have type A blood, you have the A antigen (and B antibodies, so NO B antigen)
    • O is universal donor, AB is universal ACCEPTOR (has neither antibodies so does not agglutinate
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blood ch 19 m flashcards.txt
ch 19
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